It is estimated that people have lived in the Rogue River Valley for at least 15,000 years. This estimate is based on archaeological evidence of distinctive dart and projectile points that date to about that time, called Clovis points (Aiken 1990:1).
The Takelma Indians (pronounced "Dagelma") lived along the middle and upper Rogue River, including the Table Rocks area. They enjoyed the rich abundance of food resources available near the Table Rocks. The Takelma were divided into two distinct sub-groups (Gray 2003:2).
These groups spoke related dialects of the Takelma Language. The Takelma Language is of the Penutian Language family:
- The Takelma proper (or Lowland or River Takelma), who called themselves Dagelma, meaning "those living alongside the river"
- The Upland Takelma (or Latgawa) meaning "those living in the uplands"
In addition to the Takelma, many other Native American tribes that lived in the region. The following is a brief list of other local Indian tribes, the region they lived, and their distinct language.
- Shasta: Bear Creek Valley (south of the Talent area), Upper Applegate River, Deer Creek, Shasta River, and along the Upper Klamath River and tributaries. Hokan Speakers
- Tututni: Lower Rogue River, Athapascan speakers
- Tal-tuc-tun-te-de : Galice Creek Area, Athapascan speakers
- Da-ku-be-te-de: Applegate Area, Athapascan speakers
- Shasta Costa or Chasta Costa: Lower Illinois River and the Rogue River between present-day Agness and Foster Bar, Athapascan speakers
- Karok: Lower Klamath River, downstream from the Shasta People, Hokan speakers