Wild Horse and Burro Bibliography

Medium shot of herd of wild horses running through a snowy field in Wyoming.These publications have been identified and compiled by BLM librarians for researchers interested in wild horses and burros on public lands managed by BLM. Due to copyright protection and our subscription agreements, most articles from subscription journals or databases are available only to users on the BLM network. 

For assistance locating or accessing any of these publications, please contact blm_library@blm.gov.

 

A

American Association of Equine Practitioners. 1981. Official guide for determining the age of the  horse. American Association of Equine Practitioners, Golden, CO. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

---. 2011. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Wild Horse and Burro Program. BLM Task Force Report.

Asa, C.S. 2000. Male reproductive success in free-ranging feral horses. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 47(1):89-93. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Ashley, M.C. 2004. Population genetics of feral horses: Implications of behavioral isolation. Journal of Mammology 85(4):611-617. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Ashley, M.C., & D.W. Holcombe. 2001. Effect of stress induced by gathers and removals on reproductive success of feral horses. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1):248-254. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

B

Bartholow, J.M. 2004. An economic analysis of alternative fertility control and associated management techniques for three BLM wild horse herds. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Open File Report  2004-1199. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

---. 2007. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8):2811-2819. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Bashore, T.L., R. Keiper, J.W. Turner, Jr., and J.F. Kirkpatrick. 1990. The accuracy of fixed-wing aerial surveys of feral horses on a coastal barrier island. Journal of Coastal Research 6:53–56. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Bayliss, P., and K.M. Yeomans. 1989. Correcting bias in aerial survey population estimates of feral livestock in northern Australia using the double-count technique. Journal of Applied Ecology 26:925–933. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Beever, E. 2003. Management implications of the ecology of free-roaming horses in semi-arid ecosystems of the western United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(3):887-895. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Beever, E.A., and C.L. Aldridge. 2011. Influences of free-roaming equids on sagebrush ecosystems, with a focus on Greater Sage-Grouse. Pp. 273-290 in S.T. Knick and J.W. Connelly, eds. Greater sage-grouse: Ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats. Studies in Avian Biology (vol. 38). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Beever, E.A., and P.F. Brussard. 2000. Examining ecological consequences of feral horse grazing using exclosures. Western North American Naturalist 60(3):236-254.

---. 2004. Community-and landscape-level responses of reptiles and small mammals to feral-horse grazing in the Great Basin. Journal of Arid Environments 59:271-297. 

Beever, E.A., and J.E. Herrick. 2006. Effects of feral horses in Great Basin landscapes on soils and ants: Direct and indirect mechanisms. Journal of Arid Environments 66(1):96-112. 

Bhattacharyya, J., D.S. Slocombe, and S.D. Murphy. 2011. The "wild" or "feral" distraction: Effects of cultural understandings on management controversy over free-ranging horses (Equus ferus caballus). Human Ecology  39(5):613-625. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Bowling, A.T., and R.W. Touchberry. 1990. Parentage of Great Basin feral horses. The Journal of Wildlife Management 54(3):424-429.

Boyles, J.S. 1986. Managing America's wild horses and burros. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 6:261-265. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

C

Collins, G.H., S.L. Petersen, C.A. Carr, and L. Pielstick. 2014. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses. PLoS ONE 9):e103189.

D

Davis, K.A., et. al. 2017. The effects of vaccination against GDF-9 and BMP-15 on ovarian function in the mare. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 52: 112. BLM Employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Davis, K.A., et. al. 2018. Effects of immunization against bone morphogenetic protein-15 and growth differentiation factor-9 on ovarian function in mares. Animal Reproduction Science 192: 69-77. BLM Employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Denniston, R.H., ed. 1979. Symposium on the ecology and behavior of wild and feral equids. University of Wyoming, Laramie, September 6-8, 1979.

E

Eberhardt, L.L., A.K. Majorowicz, and J.A. Wilcox. 1982. Apparent rates of increase for two feral horse herds. The Journal of Wildlife Management 91(2):367-374. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

F

Feist, J.D., and D.R. McCullough. 1975. Reproduction in feral horses. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (Suppl.) 23:13-18. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

G

Garrott, R.A. 1991. Sex ratios and differential survival of feral horses. Journal of Animal Ecology 60(3):929-936. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Garrott, R.A., and D.B. Siniff. 1992. Limitations of male-oriented contraception for controlling feral horse populations. The Journal of Wildlife Management 56(3):456-464. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Garrott, R.A., D.B. Siniff, and L.L. Eberhardt. 1991. Growth rates of feral horse populations. The Journal of Wildlife Management 55(4):641-648. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Garrott, R.A., D.B. Siniff, J.R. Tester, T.C. Eagle, and E.D. Plotka. 1992. A comparison of contraceptive technologies for feral horse management. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20(3):318-326. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Garrott, R.A., and L. Taylor. 1990. Dynamics of a feral horse population in Montana. The Journal of Wildlife Management 54(4):603-612. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Ginther, O. J. 1979. Reproductive biology of the mare. McNaughton and Gunn, Inc. Ann Arbor, MI. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Government Accountability Office. 1990. Rangeland management: Improvements needed in federal wild horse program. Report to the Secretary of the Interior. Report no. GAO/RCED-90-110.

---. 2008. Bureau of Land Management: Effective long-term options needed to manage unadoptable wild horses. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Natural Resources, House of Representatives. Report no. GAO-09-77.

Gower, J. 2000. Horse color explained: A breeder's perspective. Trafalgar Square Books. North Pomfret, VT. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Graham, A., and R. Bell. 1989. Investigating observer bias in aerial surveys by simultaneous double-counts. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1009–1016. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Gray, M.E., D.S. Thain, E.Z. Cameron, and L.A. Miller. 2010. Multi-year fertility reduction in free-roaming feral horses with single-injection immunocontraceptive formulations. Wildlife Research, 37:475-481.

Griffin, P.C., L.S. Ekernas, K.A. Schoenecker, and B.C. Lubow. 2020. Standard operating procedures for wild horse and burro double-observer aerial surveys. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 2, A16.

H

Hansen, K.V., and J.C. Mosley. 2000. Effects of roundups on behavior and reproduction of feral horses. Journal of Range Management 53:479-482. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Hazard, H., S.L. Boyles, and H. Hopkins. 2011. Recommendations on the Bureau of Land Management's standard operating procedures for wild horse and burro gather operations: A report to the Bureau of Land Management wild horse and burro program. The Humane Society of the United States. Gaithersburg, MD.

Hennig, J.D, J. D. Scasta, J.L. Beck, K.A. Schoenecker, and S.R.B. King. 2020b. Systematic review of equids and telemetry collars implications for deployment and reporting. Wildlife Research 47 (5): 361-371.

Holcomb, K.E. 2017. Is shade for horses a comfort resource or a minimum requirement? Journal of Animal Science 95 (9): 4206-4212. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Holcomb, K.E., C.B. Tucker, and C.L. Stull. 2013. Physiological, behavioral, and serological responses of horses to shaded or unshaded pens in a hot, sunny environment. Journal of Animal Science 91(12):5926-5936. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Humane Society of the United States. 2013. Is PZP safe? Immunocontraceptive vaccines and their regulation: Porcine zona pellucida is reviewed to determine effects of drug. Online fact sheet dated March 4, 2013.

---. 2013. Questions and answers about immunocontraception: A safe way to control populations humanely. Online fact sheet dated January 8, 2013.

K

Kaweck, M.M., J.P. Severson, and K.L. Launchbaugh. 2018. Impacts of wild horses, cattle, and wildlife on riparian areas in Idaho. Rangelands 40 (2):45-52.

Keiper, R.R. 1979. Population dynamics of feral ponies. Pages 175-183 in R.H. Denniston, ed. Symposium on the ecology and behavior of wild and feral equids. University of Wyoming, Laramie.

Keiper, R.R., and K. Houpt. 1984. Reproduction in feral horses: An eight-year study. American Journal of Veterinary Research 45:991-995. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Killian, G., D. Thain, N.K. Diehl, J. Rhyan, and L. Miller. 2008. Four-year contraception rates of mares treated with single-injection porcine zona pellucida and GnRH vaccines and intrauterine devices. Wildlife Research 35:531-539.

Killian, G., N.K. Diehl, L. Miller, J. Rhyan, and D. Thain. 2006. Long-term efficacy of three contraceptive approaches for population control of wild horses. Pages 67-71 in R.M. Timm and J.M. O'Brien, eds. Proceedings of the 22nd Vertebrate Pest Conference. University of California, Davis.

King, S.R.B., K.A. Schoenecker. 2019. Comparison of methods to examine diet of feral horses from noninvasively collected fecal samples. Rangeland Ecology and Management 72(4):661-666.

King, S.R.B., K.A. Schoenecker, J.A. Fike, and S.J. Oyler-McCance. 2018. Long-term persistence of horse fecal DNA in the environment makes equids particularly good candidates for noninvasive sampling. Ecology and Evolution 8(8): 4053-4064.

King, S.R.B., K.A. Schoenecker, and D.J. Manier. 2019. Potential spread of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other invasive species by feral horses (Equus ferus caballus) in western Colorado. Rangeland Ecology and Management 72 (4):706-710.

Kirkpatrick, J.F. 1995. Management of wild horses by fertility control: The Assateague experience. National Park Service Scientific Monograph NPS/NRASIS/NRSM-92/26. National Park Service. Denver, CO.

---. 2007. Measuring the effects of wildlife contraception: The argument for comparing apples with oranges. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 19: 548–552.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., I.K.M. Liu, and J.W. Turner, Jr. 1990. Remotely-delivered immunocontraception in feral horses. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18(3):326-330. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

---. 1996. Contraception of wild and feral equids. Pages 161-169 in T.J. Kreeger, ed. Contraception in Wildlife Management. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., I.K.M. Liu, J.W. Turner, Jr., R. Naugle, and R. Keiper. 1992. Long-term effects of porcine zonae pellucidae contraception on ovarian function in feral horses (Equus caballus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 94:437-444.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., R.O. Lyda, and K.M. Frank. 2011. Contraceptive vaccines for wildlife: A review. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 66:40-50.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., R. Naugle, I.K.M. Liu, J.W. Turner Jr., and M. Bernocco. 1995. Effects of seven consecutive years of PZP contraception on ovarian function in feral mares. Biology of Reproduction Monograph Series 1: Equine Reproduction VI:411-418. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., A. Rowan, N. Lamberski, R. Wallace, K. Frank, and R.O. Lyda. 2009. The practical side of immunocontraception: zona proteins and wildlife. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 83:151-157.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., A.T. Rutberg, and L. Coates-Markle. 2012. Immunocontraceptive reproductive control utilizing porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in federal wild horse populations (Fourth Edition). The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana. Billings, MT.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., and A. Turner. 2002. Reversibility of action and safety during pregnancy of immunization against porcine zona pellucida in wild mares (Equus caballus). Reproduction (Suppl.) 60:197-202. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

---. 2003. Absence of effects from immunocontraception on seasonal birth patterns and foal survival among barrier island horses. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(4):301-308. BLM/DOI Access; select the "PDF Full Text" link from the left side of the window.

---. 2007. Immunocontraception and increased longevity in equids. Zoo Biology 26:237-244.

---. 2008. Achieving population goals in a long-lived wildlife species (Equus caballus) with contraception. Wildlife Research 35:513-519.

Kirkpatrick, J.F, and J.W. Turner. 1991. Compensatory reproduction in feral horses. The Journal of Wildlife Management 55(4):649-652. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., J.W. Turner, Jr., I.K.M. Liu, and R.A. Fayrer-Hosken. 1996. Applications of pig zona pellucida immunocontraception to wildlife fertility control. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (Suppl.) 51:183-189. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., J.W. Turner, Jr., and A. Perkins. 1982. Reversible fertility control in feral horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2(4):114-118. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

L

Laake, J., M.J. Dawson, and J. Hone. 2008. Visibility bias in aerial survey: Mark–recapture, line-transect, or both? Wildlife Research 35(4):299–309. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Linklater, W.L., and E.Z. Cameron. 2002. Escape behaviour of feral horses during a helicopter count. Wildlife Research 29(2):221–224. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Little, D., K. Grissom, R. Oyler, C. Barnes, S. Elefritz, J. Christensen, G. Acheson, et al. 1999. Report of the Arizona Burro Census Team to the BLM Arizona State Leadership Team. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Phoenix, AZ. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Lubow, B.C., and J.I. Ransom. 2007. Aerial population estimates of wild horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas using an integrated simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction technique. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2007-1274. Fort Collins, CO. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Lubow, B.C., and J.I. Ransom. 2009. Validating aerial photographic mark–recapture for naturally marked feral horses. Journal of Wildlife Management 73(8):1420–1429.

Lubow, B.C. and J.I. Ransom. 2016. Practical bias correction in aerial surveys of large mammals: validation of hybrid double-observer with sightability method against known abundance of feral horse (Equus caballus) populations. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5): e0154902.

M

Madosky, J.M., D.I. Rubenstein, J.J. Howard, and S. Stuska. 2010. The effects of immunocontraception on harem fidelity in a feral horse (Equus caballus) population. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 128(1):50-56.

Monard, A.M., P. Duncan, H. Fritz, and C. Feh. 1997. Variations in the birth sex ratio and neonatal mortality in a natural herd of horses. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41(4):243-249. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

N

National Research Council of the National Academies, Committee to Review the Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Management Program. 2013. Using science to improve the BLM wild horse and burro program: A way forward. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. [Free access from the National Academy of Science website: read online or create a free account to download the PDF.]

Nelson, K.J. 1978. On the question of male-limited population growth in feral horses (Equus caballus). M.S. thesis, New Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Nunez, C.M.V., J.S. Adelman, and D.I. Rubenstein. 2010. Immunocontraception in wild horses (Equus caballus) extends reproductive cycling beyond the normal breeding season. PLoS One 5(10).

O

Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of the Interior. 2010. Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Program. Inspection Report No. C-ISBLM-0018-2010.

P

Pollock, K.H., and W.L. Kendall. 1987. Visibility bias in aerial surveys: A review of estimation procedures. Journal of Wildlife Management 51(2):502–510. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Pollock, K.H., J. D. Nichols, C. Brownie, and J. E. Hines. 1990. Statistical inference for capture–recapture experiments. Wildlife Monographs 107. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Powell, D.M. 1999. Preliminary evaluation of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for behavioral effects in feral horses (Equus caballus). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2(4):321–335. BLM/DOI users may access in HTML; for PDF, select the "PDF Full Text" link from the left side of the window.

R

Ransom, J.I. 2009. Understanding the influences of immunocontraception on equids through competing models of behavior. M.S. thesis, Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO.

Ransom, J.I. 2012. Detection probability in aerial surveys of feral horses. Journal of Wildlife Management 76(2):299-307.

Ransom, J.I. 2012. Population ecology of feral horses in an era of fertility control management. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO.

Ransom, J.I. and B.S. Cade. 2009. Quantifying equid behavior— A research ethogram for free-roaming feral horses. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 2-A9.

Ransom, J. I., B.S. Cade, and N.T. Hobbs. 2010. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 124:51-60.

Ransom, J.I., J.E. Roelle, B.S. Cade, L. Coates-Markle, and A.J. Kane. 2011. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35(4):343-352.

Rikoon, J.S. 2006. Wild horses and the political ecology of nature restoration in the Missouri Ozarks. Geoforum 37(2):200-211. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Roelle, J.E., and J.I. Ransom. 2009. Injection-site reactions in wild horses (Equus caballus) receiving an immunocontraceptive vaccine. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5038.

Roelle, J.E., F.J. Singer, L.C. Zeigenfuss, J.I. Ransom, L. Coates-Markle, and K.A. Schoenecker. 2010. Demography of the Pryor Mountain wild horses, 1993- 2007. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5125.

Roelle, J.E. and S.J. Oyler-McCance. 2015. Potential demographic and genetic effects of a sterilant applied to wild horse mares. US Geological Survey Open-file Report 2015-1045.

Rutberg, A.T., ed. 2005. Humane wildlife solutions: The role of immunocontraception. The Humane Society Press. Washington, D.C.

Rutberg, A., K. Grams, J.W. Turner, and H. Hopkins. 2017. Contraceptive efficacy of priming and boosting does of controlled-release PZP in wild horses. Wildlife Research 44(2): 174-181.

Rutberg, A.T., and R.E. Naugle. 2008. Population-level effects of immunocontraception in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Wildlife Research 35:494– 501.

S

Scasta, John Derek. 2020. Mortality and Operational Attributes Relative to Feral Horse and Burro Capture Techniques Based on Publicly Available Data From 2010-2019. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 86. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML

Schoenecker, K.A, P.F. Doherty, J.S. Hourt, and J.P. Romero. 2018. Testing Infrared Camera Surveys and Distance Analyses to Estimate Feral Horse Abundance in a Known Population. Wildlife Society Bulletin 42 (3): 452-459.

Schoenecker K.A., S.R.B. King, and G.H. Collins. 2020. Evaluation of the impacts of radio-marking devices on feral horses and burros in a captive setting. Human-Wildlife Interactions 14(1): 73-86.

Seal, U.S., and E.D. Plotka. 1983. Age-specific pregnancy rates in feral horses. Journal of Wildlife Management 47(2): 422-429. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Singer, F.J., and K.A. Schoenecker, compilers. 2000. Managers' summary - Ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992–1997. U.S. Geological Survey. Fort Collins, CO. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Singer, F.J., and L. Zeigenfuss. 2000. Genetic effective population size in the Pryor Mountain wild horse herd: Implications for conserving genetics and viability
goals in wild horses. U.S. Bureau of Land Management Resource Notes No. 29. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Siniff, D.B., J.R. Tester, and G.L. McMahon. 1986. Foaling rate and survival of feral horses in western Nevada. Journal of Range Management 39(4):296-297.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Smith, M.A. 1986. Potential competitive interactions between feral horses and other grazing animals. Equine Veterinary Science 6(5):238-239. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Symanski, R. 1985. Wild horses and sacred cows. Northland Press. Flagstaff, AZ. BLM employees may contact the library for assistance.

T

Turner, A., and Kirkpatrick, J.F. 2002. Effects of immunocontraception on population, longevity and body condition in wild mares (Equus caballus). Reproduction (Suppl.) 60:187–195. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Turner, J.W., Jr., I.K.M. Liu, D.R. Flanagan, A.T. Rutberg, and J.F. Kirkpatrick. 2007. Immunocontraception in wild horses: One inoculation provides two years of infertility. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2):662-667.

Turner, J.W., Jr., I.K.M. Liu, and J.F. Kirkpatrick. 1996. Remotely delivered immunocontraception in free-roaming feral burros (Equus asinus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 107(1):31-35.

Turner, J.W. Jr., I.K.M. Liu, A.T. Rutberg, and J.F. Kirkpatrick. 1997. Immunocontraception limits foal production in free-roaming feral horses in Nevada. The Journal of Wildlife Management 61(3):873-880. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Turner, J.W., A.T. Rutberg, R.E. Naugle, M.A. Kaur, D.R. Flanagan. H.J. Bertschinger, and I.K.M. Liu. 2008. Controlled-release components of PZP contraceptive vaccine extend duration of infertility. Wildlife Research 35(6): 555-562. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

U

U.S. Bureau of Land Management. 2012. The story of America's wild horses and burros [videorecording]. Running time 56:28.

W

Walter, M.J., and J. Hone. 2003. A comparison of 3 aerial survey techniques to estimate wild horse abundance in the Australian Alps. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(4):1138–1149. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Welsh, D.A. 1975. Population, behavioral, and grazing ecology of the horse of Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Ph.D. dissertation, Dalhousie University. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. BLM employees may contact the BLM Library for access.

Wolfe, M.L., Jr. 1980. Feral horse demography: A preliminary report. Journal of Range Management 33:354-360. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Wolfe, M.L., L.C. Ellis, and R. MacMullen. 1989. Reproductive rates of feral horses and burros. The Journal of Wildlife Management 53(4):916-924. BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Z

Ziegenfuss, L.C., K.A. Schoenecker, J.I. Ransom, D.A. Ignizio, and T. Mask. 2014. Influence of nonnative and native ungulate biomass and seasonal precipitation on vegetation production in a great basin ecosystem. Western North American Naturalist 74 (3): 286-298.

Zoo Montana. 2000. Wildlife fertility control: Fact and fancy. Zoo Montana Science and Conservation Biology Program. Billings, MT.

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