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1. The endangered Northern spotted owl has been at the center of Northwest forest issues regarding logging old-growth timber. 2. The jumbled shrubs, seedlings, young trees, and ferns under the mature trees of the canopy are called the understory. 3. The Townsend's chipmunk, a ground-dwelling species primarily inhabiting the forest floor, forages for grass seeds. 4. Broken-topped old-growth trees provide nesting places for raptors and woodpeckers.

Green Mansions

By Frances Philipek, Shelley Smith, and Richard Brook



For the Classroom
Here nature seems to have put forth her best efforts. The high, surrounding mountains, the summits of which are studded with snow, the beautiful groves of timber that stud the slopes, the rich swards of grass that carpet the valley, the beautiful streams that course the valley... All combined to make this one of the most lovely sopts on earth. It entirely baffles description. Here we lay the balance of the day, contemplating the grandeur.

P.V. Crawford
July 13, 1851