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Herd of wild horses, Lower Snake River District, BLM-Idaho

Wild Horse and Burro Bibliography

These publications have been identified and compiled by BLM librarians for researchers interested in wild horses and burros on public lands managed by BLM. Due to copyright protection and our subscription agreements, most articles from subscription journals or databases are available only to users on the BLM network.

For assistance locating or accessing any of these publications, please contact blm_library@blm.gov.

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American Association of Equine Practitioners. 1981. Official guide for determining the age of the horse. American Association of Equine Practitioners, Golden, CO.

---. 2011. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Wild Horse and Burro Program. BLM Task Force Report.

Asa, C.S. 2000. Male reproductive success in free-ranging feral horses. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 47(1):89-93.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Ashley, M.C. 2004. Population genetics of feral horses: Implications of behavioral isolation. Journal of Mammology 85(4):611-617.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Ashley, M.C., & D.W. Holcombe. 2001. Effect of stress induced by gathers and removals on reproductive success of feral horses. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1):248-254.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Bartholow, J.M. 2004. An economic analysis of alternative fertility control and associated management techniques for three BLM wild horse herds. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Open File Report 2004-1199.

---. 2007. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(8):2811-2819.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Bashore, T.L., R. Keiper, J.W. Turner, Jr., and J.F. Kirkpatrick. 1990. The accuracy of fixed-wing aerial surveys of feral horses on a coastal barrier island. Journal of Coastal Research 6:53–56.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Bayliss, P., and K.M. Yeomans. 1989. Correcting bias in aerial survey population estimates of feral livestock in northern Australia using the double-count technique. Journal of Applied Ecology 26:925–933.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Beever, E. 2003. Management implications of the ecology of free-roaming horses in semi-arid ecosystems of the western United States. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(3):887-895.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Beever, E.A., and C.L. Aldridge. 2011. Influences of free-roaming equids on sagebrush ecosystems, with a focus on Greater Sage-Grouse. Pp. 273-290 in S.T. Knick and J.W. Connelly, eds. Greater sage-grouse: Ecology and conservation of a landscape species and its habitats. Studies in Avian Biology (vol. 38). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Beever, E.A., and P.F. Brussard. 2000. Examining ecological consequences of feral horse grazing using exclosures. Western North American Naturalist 60(3):236-254.

---. 2004. Community-and landscape-level responses of reptiles and small mammals to feral-horse grazing in the Great Basin. Journal of Arid Environments 59:271-297.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Beever, E.A., and J.E. Herrick. 2006. Effects of feral horses in Great Basin landscapes on soils and ants: Direct and indirect mechanisms. Journal of Arid Environments 66(1):96-112.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Bhattacharyya, J., D.S. Slocombe, and S.D. Murphy. 2011. The "wild" or "feral" distraction: Effects of cultural understandings on management controversy over free-ranging horses (Equus ferus caballus). Human Ecology 39(5):613-625.

Bowling, A.T., and R.W. Touchberry. 1990. Parentage of Great Basin feral horses. The Journal of Wildlife Management 54(3):424-429.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Boyles, J.S. 1986. Managing America's wild horses and burros. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 6:261-265.

Collins, G.H., S.L. Petersen, C.A. Carr, and L. Pielstick. 2014. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses. PLoS ONE 9(9):e103189.

Denniston, R.H., ed. 1979. Symposium on the ecology and behavior of wild and feral equids. University of Wyoming, Laramie, September 6-8, 1979.

Eberhardt, L.L., A.K. Majorowicz, and J.A. Wilcox1982. Apparent rates of increase for two feral horse herds. The Journal of Wildlife Management 91(2):367-374.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Feist, J.D., and D.R. McCullough. 1975. Reproduction in feral horses. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (Suppl.) 23:13-18.

Garrott, R.A. 1991. Sex ratios and differential survival of feral horses. Journal of Animal Ecology 60(3):929-936.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Garrott, R.A., and D.B. Siniff. 1992. Limitations of male-oriented contraception for controlling feral horse populations. The Journal of Wildlife Management 56(3):456-464.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Garrott, R.A., D.B. Siniff, and L.L. Eberhardt. 1991. Growth rates of feral horse populations. The Journal of Wildlife Management 55(4):641-648.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Garrott, R.A., D.B. Siniff, J.R. Tester, T.C. Eagle, and E.D. Plotka. 1992. A comparison of contraceptive technologies for feral horse management. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20(3):318-326.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Garrott, R.A., and L. Taylor. 1990. Dynamics of a feral horse population in Montana. The Journal of Wildlife Management 54(4):603-612.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Ginther, O. J. 1979. Reproductive biology of the mare. McNaughton and Gunn, Inc. Ann Arbor, MI.

Government Accountability Office. 1990. Rangeland management: Improvements needed in federal wild horse program. Report to the Secretary of the Interior. Report no. GAO/RCED-90-110.

---. 2008. Bureau of Land Management: Effective long-term options needed to manage unadoptable wild horses. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Natural Resources, House of Representatives. Report no. GAO-09-77.

Gower, J. 2000. Horse color explained: A breeder's perspective. Trafalgar Square Books. North Pomfret, VT.

Graham, A., and R. Bell. 1989. Investigating observer bias in aerial surveys by simultaneous double-counts. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:1009–1016.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Gray, M.E., D.S. Thain, E.Z. Cameron, and L.A. Miller. 2010. Multi-year fertility reduction in free-roaming feral horses with single-injection immunocontraceptive formulations. Wildlife Research, 37:475-481.

Hansen, K.V., and J.C. Mosley. 2000. Effects of roundups on behavior and reproduction of feral horses. Journal of Range Management 53:479-482.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Hazard, H., S.L. Boyles, and H. Hopkins. 2011. Recommendations on the Bureau of Land Management's standard operating procedures for wild horse and burro gather operations: A report to the Bureau of Land Management wild horse and burro program. The Humane Society of the United States. Gaithersburg, MD.

Holcomb, K.E., C.B. Tucker, and C.L. Stull. 2013. Physiological, behavioral, and serological responses of horses to shaded or unshaded pens in a hot, sunny environment. Journal of Animal Science 91(12):5926-5936.

Humane Society of the United States. 2013. Is PZP safe? Immunocontraceptive vaccines and their regulation: Porcine zona pellucida is reviewed to determine effects of drug. Online fact sheet dated March 4, 2013.

---. 2013. Questions and answers about immunocontraception: A safe way to control populations humanely. Online fact sheet dated January 8, 2013. 

Keiper, R.R. 1979. Population dynamics of feral ponies. Pages 175-183 in R.H. Denniston, ed. Symposium on the ecology and behavior of wild and feral equids. University of Wyoming, Laramie.

Keiper, R.R., and K. Houpt. 1984. Reproduction in feral horses: An eight-year study. American Journal of Veterinary Research 45:991-995.

Killian, G., D. Thain, N.K. Diehl, J. Rhyan, and L. Miller. 2008. Four-year contraception rates of mares treated with single-injection porcine zona pellucida and GnRH vaccines and intrauterine devices. Wildlife Research 35:531-539.

Killian, G., N.K. Diehl, L. Miller, J. Rhyan, and D. Thain. 2006. Long-term efficacy of three contraceptive approaches for population control of wild horses. Pages 67-71 in R.M. Timm and J.M. O'Brien, eds. Proceedings of the 22nd Vertebrate Pest Conference. University of California, Davis.

Kirkpatrick, J.F. 1995. Management of wild horses by fertility control: The Assateague experience. National Park Service Scientific Monograph NPS/NRASIS/NRSM-92/26. National Park Service. Denver, CO.

---. 2007. Measuring the effects of wildlife contraception: The argument for comparing apples with oranges. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 19: 548–552.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., I.K.M. Liu, and J.W. Turner, Jr. 1990. Remotely-delivered immunocontraception in feral horses. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18(3):326-330.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

---. 1996. Contraception of wild and feral equids. Pages 161-169 in T.J. Kreeger, ed. Contraception in Wildlife Management. U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., I.K.M. Liu, J.W. Turner, Jr., R. Naugle, and R. Keiper. 1992. Long-term effects of porcine zonae pellucidae contraception on ovarian function in feral horses (Equus caballus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 94:437-444.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., R.O. Lyda, and K.M. Frank. 2011. Contraceptive vaccines for wildlife: A review. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology 66:40-50.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., R. Naugle, I.K.M. Liu, J.W. Turner Jr., and M. Bernocco. 1995. Effects of seven consecutive years of PZP contraception on ovarian function in feral mares. Biology of Reproduction Monograph Series 1: Equine Reproduction VI:411-418.

Kirkpatrick J.F., A. Rowan, N. Lamberski, R. Wallace, K. Frank, and R.O. Lyda. 2009. The practical side of immunocontraception: zona proteins and wildlife. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 83:151-157.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., A.T. Rutberg, and L. Coates-Markle. 2012. Immunocontraceptive reproductive control utilizing porcine zona pellucida (PZP) in federal wild horse populations (Fourth Edition). The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana. Billings, MT.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., and A. Turner. 2002. Reversibility of action and safety during pregnancy of immunization against porcine zona pellucida in wild mares (Equus caballus). Reproduction (Suppl.) 60:197-202.

---. 2003. Absence of effects from immunocontraception on seasonal birth patterns and foal survival among barrier island horses. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(4):301-308.
BLM/DOI users may access here; select the "PDF Full Text" link from the left side of the window.

---. 2007. Immunocontraception and increased longevity in equids. Zoo Biology 26:237-244.

---. 2008. Achieving population goals in a long-lived wildlife species (Equus caballus) with contraception. Wildlife Research 35:513-519.

Kirkpatrick, J.F, and J.W. Turner. 1991. Compensatory reproduction in feral horses. The Journal of Wildlife Management 55(4):649-652.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., J.W. Turner, Jr., I.K.M. Liu, and R.A. Fayrer-Hosken. 1996. Applications of pig zona pellucida immunocontraception to wildlife fertility control. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (Suppl.) 51:183-189.

Kirkpatrick, J.F., J.W. Turner, Jr., and A. Perkins. 1982. Reversible fertility control in feral horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 2(4):114-118.

Laake, J., M.J. Dawson, and J. Hone. 2008. Visibility bias in aerial survey: Mark–recapture, line-transect, or both? Wildlife Research 35(4):299–309.

Linklater, W.L., and E.Z. Cameron. 2002. Escape behaviour of feral horses during a helicopter count. Wildlife Research 29(2):221–224.

Little, D., K. Grissom, R. Oyler, C. Barnes, S. Elefritz, J. Christensen, G. Acheson, et al. 1999. Report of the Arizona Burro Census Team to the BLM Arizona State Leadership Team. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Phoenix, AZ.

Lubow, B.C., and J.I. Ransom. 2007. Aerial population estimates of wild horses (Equus caballus) in the Adobe Town and Salt Wells Creek Herd Management Areas using an integrated simultaneous double-count and sightability bias correction technique. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2007-1274. Fort Collins, CO.

Lubow, B.C., and J.I. Ransom. 2009. Validating aerial photographic mark–recapture for naturally marked feral horses. Journal of Wildlife Management 73(8):1420–1429.

Madosky, J.M., D.I. Rubenstein, J.J. Howard, and S. Stuska. 2010. The effects of immunocontraception on harem fidelity in a feral horse (Equus caballus) population. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 128(1):50-56.

Monard, A.M., P. Duncan, H. Fritz, and C. Feh. 1997. Variations in the birth sex ratio and neonatal mortality in a natural herd of horses. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 41(4):243-249.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

National Research Council of the National Academies, Committee to Review the Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Management Program. 2013. Using science to improve the BLM wild horse and burro program: A way forward. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
[Free access from the National Academy of Science website: read online or create a free account to download the PDF.]

Nelson, K.J. 1978. On the question of male-limited population growth in feral horses (Equus caballus). M.S. thesis, New Mexico State University. Las Cruces, NM.

Nuñez, C.M.V., J.S. Adelman, and D.I. Rubenstein. 2010. Immunocontraception in wild horses (Equus caballus) extends reproductive cycling beyond the normal breeding season. PLoS One 5(10).

Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of the Interior. 2010. Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Program. Inspection Report No. C-IS-BLM-0018-2010.

Pollock, K.H., and W.L. Kendall. 1987. Visibility bias in aerial surveys: A review of estimation procedures. Journal of Wildlife Management 51(2):502–510.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Pollock, K.H., J. D. Nichols, C. Brownie, and J. E. Hines. 1990. Statistical inference for capture–recapture experiments. Wildlife Monographs 107.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Powell, D.M. 1999. Preliminary evaluation of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for behavioral effects in feral horses (Equus caballus). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2(4):321–335.
BLM/DOI users may access in HTML; for PDF, select the "PDF Full Text" link from the left side of the window. 

Ransom, J.I. 2009. Understanding the influences of immunocontraception on equids through competing models of behavior. M.S. thesis, Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO.

Ransom, J.I. 2012. Detection probability in aerial surveys of feral horses. Journal of Wildlife Management 76(2):299-307.

Ransom, J.I. 2012. Population ecology of feral horses in an era of fertility control management. Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado State University. Fort Collins, CO.

Ransom, J. I., B.S. Cade, and N.T. Hobbs. 2010. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 124:51-60.

Ransom, J.I., J.E. Roelle, B.S. Cade, L. Coates-Markle, and A.J. Kane. 2011. Foaling rates in feral horses treated with the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida. Wildlife Society Bulletin 35(4):343-352.

Rikoon, J.S. 2006. Wild horses and the political ecology of nature restoration in the Missouri Ozarks. Geoforum 37(2):200-211.

Roelle, J.E., and J.I. Ransom. 2009. Injection-site reactions in wild horses (Equus caballus) receiving an immunocontraceptive vaccine. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5038.

Roelle, J.E., F.J. Singer, L.C. Zeigenfuss, J.I. Ransom, L. Coates-Markle, and K.A. Schoenecker. 2010. Demography of the Pryor Mountain wild horses, 1993-2007. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5125.

Rutberg, A.T., ed. 2005. Humane wildlife solutions: The role of immunocontraception. The Humane Society Press. Washington, D.C.

Rutberg, A.T., and R.E. Naugle. 2008. Population-level effects of immunocontraception in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Wildlife Research 35:494–501.

Seal, U.S., and E.D. Plotka. 1983. Age-specific pregnancy rates in feral horses. Journal of Wildlife Management 47(2):422-429.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Singer, F.J., and K.A. Schoenecker, compilers. 2000. Managers' summary - Ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992–1997. U.S. Geological Survey. Fort Collins, CO.

Singer, F.J., and L. Zeigenfuss. 2000. Genetic effective population size in the Pryor Mountain wild horse herd: Implications for conserving genetics and viability goals in wild horses. U.S. Bureau of Land Management Resource Notes No. 29.

Siniff, D.B., J.R. Tester, and G.L. McMahon. 1986. Foaling rate and survival of feral horses in western Nevada. Journal of Range Management 39(4):296-297.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Smith, M.A. 1986. Potential competitive interactions between feral horses and other grazing animals. Equine Veterinary Science 6(5):238-239.

Symanski, R. 1985. Wild horses and sacred cows. Northland Press. Flagstaff, AZ.
Held by the BLM Library; BLM employees may contact the library for assistance.

Turner, A., and Kirkpatrick, J.F. 2002. Effects of immunocontraception on population, longevity and body condition in wild mares (Equus caballus). Reproduction (Suppl.) 60:187–195.

Turner, J.W., Jr., I.K.M. Liu, D.R. Flanagan, A.T. Rutberg, and J.F. Kirkpatrick. 2007. Immunocontraception in wild horses: One inoculation provides two years of infertility. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71(2):662-667.

Turner, J.W., Jr., I.K.M. Liu, and J.F. Kirkpatrick. 1996. Remotely delivered immunocontraception in free-roaming feral burros (Equus asinus). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 107(1):31-35.

Turner, J.W. Jr., I.K.M. Liu, A.T. Rutberg, and J.F. Kirkpatrick. 1997. Immunocontraception limits foal production in free-roaming feral horses in Nevada. The Journal of  Wildlife Management 61(3):873-880.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

U.S. Bureau of Land Management. 2012. The story of America's wild horses and burros [videorecording]. Running time 56:28.

Walter, M.J., and J. Hone. 2003. A comparison of 3 aerial survey techniques to estimate wild horse abundance in the Australian Alps. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31(4):1138–1149.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Welsh, D.A. 1975. Population, behavioral, and grazing ecology of the horse of Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Ph.D. dissertation, Dalhousie University. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Wolfe, M.L., Jr. 1980. Feral horse demography: A preliminary report. Journal of Range Management 33:354-360.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Wolfe, M.L., L.C. Ellis, and R. MacMullen. 1989. Reproductive rates of feral horses and burros. The Journal of Wildlife Management 53(4):916-924.
BLM users may access as a PDF or in HTML.

Zoo Montana. 2000. Wildlife fertility control: Fact and fancy. Zoo Montana Science and Conservation Biology Program. Billings, MT.


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Last updated: 10-16-2015