Threatened and Endangered Plants Oregon/Washington BLM



Threatened and Endangered Plants

The BLM's Threatened and Endangered plant program aims to protect, restore, and rehabilitate threatened and endangered plants on BLM public lands. There are currently 12 species on the Oregon/Washington BLM list.

Willamette daisy

Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens - Willamette daisy

A perennial herb in the Aster family, the Willamette daisy was listed as endangered in 2000. Growing up to 2 feet tall, the plant’s flowers are daisy-like with yellow centers and 25-50 pinkish or bluish rays that often fade to white with age. The Willamette daisy is endemic to the Willamette Valley and occurs on alluvial soils. Historically widespread, fragmentation, agriculture, urban growth, and prairie fire suppression have destroyed much of this plant’s habitat.

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Gentner’s fritillary

Fritillaria gentneri - Gentner’s fritillary

Gentner’s fritillary was federally listed as threatened in 1999. A perennial plant in the lily family, this fritillary produces reddish-purple flowers with pale yellow streaks and can grow up to 1.5 feet tall. It grows in or on the edge of Oregon white oak and Pacific madrone woodlands. Ponderosa pine and Douglas fir are also common overstory trees. A narrow endemic known only from scattered areas in southwest Oregon, urban development, agriculture, logging, fire suppression, road maintenance, and off-road-vehicle use have led to this species’ population decline.

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Water howellia

Howellia aquatilis - Water howellia

Water howellia is an annual aquatic species that was listed as threatened in 1994. With bright white flowers, the plant was historically documented growing in ponds and wetlands. Today, most of the sites that were inhabited by Water howellia in the past have been destroyed by urban development. Construction of dams and channelization of waterways have reduced the number and quality of suitable wetland habitats leading to a drastic decline in population numbers.

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Western lily

Lilium occidentale - Western lily

Federally listed as endangered in 1994, sporadic Western lily sites have been documented within a 200 mile stretch along the southern Oregon and northern California Pacific coast. A perennial lily with striking red or dark orange flowers, this plant can reach a height of 5 feet. Western lily typically grows within, or at the edges of fens and poorly drained forest openings and, less frequently, in coastal prairie/scrub near the ocean. Clearing and draining of wetlands, agriculture, and urbanization are major threats to the survival of this endangered lily.

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Bradshaw’s lomatium

Lomatium bradshawii - Bradshaw’s lomatium

Bradshaw’s lomatium is a perennial herb in the parsley family that was federally listed as endangered in 1988. Mature plants can grow up to 20 inches in height, have small yellow flowers that are grouped into asymmetrical umbels, and have only 2-6 leaves that are mainly basal. Endemic to the Willamette Valley, Bradshaw’s lomatium was once widespread over wet, open areas and seasonally flooded prairies. Today, the main grouping of sites occurs in the Eugene area.

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Cook’s lomatium

Lomatium cookii - Cook’s lomatium

Only occurring in seasonally wet soils and vernal pools, this perennial plant in the parsley family was federally listed as endangered in 2002. The plant produces small, boat-shaped fruits from a pale yellow umbel of flowers. Human development, road construction and maintenance, livestock grazing, and roadside pesticide spraying are some of the main causes of population decline of Cook’s lomatium.

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Kincaid’s lupine

Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii - Kincaid’s lupine

This low growing lupine with aromatic purplish-blue flowers was federally listed as threatened in 2000. Found mainly in the Willamette Valley, Kincaid’s lupine occupies dry fescue prairies. Because native prairie habitats have been mainly eliminated from the Willamette Valley as a result of urbanization, agriculture, and fire suppression, this species of lupine has lost most of its habitat. Non-native plants have also contributed to the decline of this species through aggressive overtake of open areas. A host to the endangered Fender’s blue butterfly, management activities for Kincaid’s lupine must be carefully timed to avoid harming the endangered butterfly.

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Rough popcorn flower

Plagiobothrys hirtus - Rough popcorn flower

Rough popcorn flower was federally listed as endangered in 2000. Growing in scattered clumps in seasonal wetlands, the plant is an annual on drier sites and a perennial on wet sites. Similar to other species in its genus, Rough popcorn flower can be distinguished from other Plagiobothrys species by the coarse hairs that grow on its stems.

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Nelson’s checkermallow

Sidalcea nelsoniana - Nelson’s checkermallow

A perennial herb in the mallow family, Nelson’s checkermallow was federally listed as threatened in 1993. Growing in the Willamette Valley and the Coast Range, the plant has tall inflorescences with lavender to deep pink flowers. It most frequently grows in wetlands, meadows with wet depressions, and along streams. Livestock grazing, agriculture, fire suppression, and stream channel modifications have contributed to species decline.

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Spalding's catchfly

Silene spaldingii - Spalding's catchfly

Listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act, Spalding’s catchfly is a perennial plant in the pink family. This species grows in mesic grasslands alongside Idaho fescue, Bluebunch wheatgrass, Purple avens, Sticky geranium, and Balsamroot. Agriculture, urban development, livestock grazing, herbicide treatments, and competition from non-native plants have all resulted in the population decline of Spalding’s catchfly.

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Ute ladies’-tresses

Spiranthes diluvialis - Ute ladies’-tresses

Growing in riparian areas, streams, gravel bars, and wet to moist meadows, Ute ladies’-tresses is a perennial orchid with white to ivory flowers. Typically occurring in stable wetland areas, the plant’s habitat has been damaged by human activities that modify natural hydrologic processes such as damming, agriculture, and wetland removal.

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Malheur wire-lettuce

Stephanomeria malheurensis - Malheur wire-lettuce

Known only from a small area in the high desert south of Burns, Malheur wire-lettuce is an annual plant in the aster family. As an annual, the species’ population numbers vary greatly from year to year depending on seasonal precipitation. Disturbances in the fire regime of the Great Basin have allowed an aggressive non-native grass to take over much of the wire-lettuce’s habitat. Small population size puts the Malheur wire-lettuce in danger of extinction.

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