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Management Recommendations
for
Boreal Bedstraw (Galium kamtschaticum Steller ex Schult. and Schult.)

v. 2.0

by

Laura L. Potash

 

December 1998


TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1
I. NATURAL HISTORY 3
A. Taxonomic/Nomenclatural History 3
B. Species Description 3
1. Morphology 3
2. Reproductive Biology 3
3. Ecology 4
C. Range, Known Sites 4
D. Habitat Characteristics and Species Abundance 5
II. CURRENT SPECIES SITUATION 8
A. Why Species is Listed under Survey and Manage Standards and Guidelines 8
B. Major Habitat and Viability Considerations 8
C. Threats to the Species 8
D. Distribution Relative to Land Allocations 9
III. MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 10
A. Management Goals for the Taxon 10
B. Specific Objectives 11
IV. HABITAT MANAGEMENT 11
A. Lessons from History 11
B. Identification of Habitat Areas for Management 11
C. Management Within Habitat Areas 11
D. Other Management Issues and Considerations 12
V. RESEARCH, INVENTORY, AND MONITORING NEEDS 12
A. Data Gaps and Information Needs 13
B. Research Questions 13
C. Monitoring Needs and Recommendations 14
VI. REFERENCES 15
FIGURES 17

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Species: Galium kamtschaticum Steller ex Schult. and Schult. (boreal bedstraw)

Taxonomic Group: Vascular Plants

ROD Components: 1, 2

Other Management Status: Galium kamtschaticum is on the R6 Regional Forester's Sensitive Species List (USDA Forest Service 1991) and BLM Bureau Assessment List. The species is considered Sensitive by Washington Natural Heritage Program (1998).

Range: Galium kamtschaticum is circumboreal in its distribution and occurs sporadically from Kamchatka and Korea, through the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska panhandle, to the Olympic Mountains and Cascade Range of Washington, where it apparently does not extend south of Snoqualmie Pass. The species reappears in southeastern Canada and adjacent New England, New York State, and the northeastern side of Lake Superior. On federal lands within the range of the northern spotted owl, Galium kamtschaticum has been documented on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie, Wenatchee, and Olympic National Forests.

Specific Habitat: Galium kamtschaticum is described as inhabiting moist, cold, coniferous forests and mossy places throughout its range. Sites on the Olympic Peninsula are generally on northerly aspects, from 643-967 m (1930-2900 feet) in elevation, in the silver fir or mountain hemlock plant associations, in wet canopy gaps. In the western Cascades, this species most often occurs on low angle slopes with saturated soils, under dense shrub or ladyfern thickets, in old-growth forest canopy gaps, and in the silver fir/devil's club-Alaska huckleberry plant association. There are exceptions however - one of the largest and most vigorous populations in the Cascades occurs on steep talus with a dense shrub cover.

Threats:

  • Changes in hydrology resulting from management activities, or from climate change.
  • Trampling, crushing, or other direct impacts to the fragile above-ground stems.
  • Compaction of saturated soils; this could alter wetland hydrology and could destroy the shallowly rooted underground rhizomes.
  • Increased light intensity; virtually all populations received only partial or indirect sunlight.

Management Recommendations:

  1. Maintain the existing drainage patterns and avoid compaction of the saturated soils.
  2. Maintain significant associated understory species and conditions that support their growth. Species that occurred in over 50 percent of the known sites are salmonberry, devil's club, stink currant, and ladyfern.
  3. Avoid actions that would facilitate the invasion of weedy species.
  4. Avoid direct impacts that would crush the plants such as yarding, moving of equipment, or trampling on the stems. For large populations of Galium kamtschaticum (e.g., several hundred stems), the goal is to avoid all impacts but, if this is impossible, follow the "one and twenty rule": only disturb one stem if there are a total of 20 remaining, 2 if there are a total of 40 remaining, and so on, i.e., < 5% of a larger population.

Information Needs: Inventory of areas identified as suitable habitat on federal lands in Washington, excluding the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest.

I. NATURAL HISTORY

A. Taxonomic/Nomenclatural History

Galium kamtschaticum Stellar ex Schult. & Schult. was originally documented by Stellar on the Kamtschatka Peninsula in Siberia off the eastern coast of Russia (Schultes and Schultes 1827). It was subsequently called Galium rotundifolium var. kamtschaticum (Kuntze 1891). Meanwhile, a population discovered in the White Mountains of New Hampshire was considered to be a different species named Galium littellii (Oakes 1841). Modern day taxonomists have now accepted the earliest name as the one deserving specific status, and all of the other names mentioned are considered to be the same entity (Hitchcock et al. 1969; Anderson 1974; Calder and Taylor 1968; Hulten 1968; Scoggan 1979).

B. Species Description

1. Morphology

Galium kamtschaticum is an inconspicuous perennial herb, about 1-2 dm (4-8") tall, in the Rubiaceae family. It has a smooth main stem and round leaves that are borne in whorls of 4. It is distinguished by having only 2-4 sets of whorls per plant and by having very few flowers. The leaves have narrow bases at the point of attachment to the stem, and are often mucronate at the tip. Galium kamtschaticum generally has only 2-3 flowers at the top of each flower stalk and has only 1-3 flower stalks per plant. The inconspicuous flowers are only about 3 mm wide, greenish-white in color, and 4-lobed. These develop into tiny fruits, 1.5 mm long, that are covered with hooked bristles.

Galium kamtschaticum can sometimes be confused with Galium oreganum, which is the only other Galium in this area that has 4 leaves per whorl. However, Galium oreganum has 5 to 8 sets of whorls per plant, the inflorescence is more branched, and there are more flowers at the end of each flower stalk. In western Washington, boreal bedstraw emerges late in the season and cannot be positively identified until late July since immature species of Galium are virtually impossible to distinguish from each other with reliable accuracy (many other species of Galium have 4 leaves per whorl when in the juvenile stage).

2. Reproductive Biology

Boreal bedstraw is a perennial herb with creeping slender rhizomes (Hitchcock et al. 1969). Most populations observed on Canada's Queen Charlotte Islands showed well developed vegetative reproduction but only a few plants in any one colony produced flowers or fruit (Calder and Taylor 1968). Of the 18 sites studied on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest in 1991, an average of 48 percent of the plants were in flower or fruit on each survey date (Potash 1992). Of these, 15 percent of the sites had plants in flower vs. 85 percent with the plants in fruit, even though sites were visited continuously from the time of first emergence until killing frost in the late fall. For this reason it appears that the actual time of blooming may be very brief. It is not known what the pollination vector is for Galium kamtschaticum.

Populations in the western Cascades varied from 2 "individuals" to several hundred stems. The term "individual" is used here in a general sense to mean a single stem arising from the ground; this species usually occurs in patches, and it is recognized that the single stems may not be genetically distinct entities.

3. Ecology

Presumably distribution of seeds by animals is an important dispersal strategy for this species since the fruits are armed with numerous hooked barbs and readily attach themselves to any passing fur, feather, or fabric. If this assumption is correct, then the seeds of Galium kamtschaticum could be disseminated over large distances. However, establishment can only occur in habitats that meet somewhat narrow environmental parameters, which are described in detail in the section on Habitat Characteristics.

C. Range, Known Sites

Boreal bedstraw is circumboreal in its distribution, but it is "rare and local" throughout its range (Hitchcock et al. 1969) and, in fact, "represents one of the rarest species in the Cordilleran region" (Calder and Taylor 1968). Galium kamtschaticum occurs sporadically from Kamchatka and Korea, through the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska panhandle, to the Olympic Mountains and Cascade Range of Washington, where it apparently does not extend south of Snoqualmie Pass. The species reappears in southeastern Canada and adjacent New England, New York State, and the northeastern side of Lake Superior. Within the range of the northern spotted owl, the vast majority of the known sites for Galium kamtschaticum are in the western Cascades on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (Figure 1). The western Cascades also have 2 sites on land administered by Wenatchee National Forest and 2 sites on land owned by Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR). On the Olympic Peninsula there are 6 known sites, all of which occur on Olympic National Forest (Figure 2). A summary of the known locations is listed in Table 1. Information is based on 6/97 update of Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Botany Program database in coordination with Washington Natural Heritage Program.

Table 1. Known sites* for boreal bedstraw within the range of the northern spotted owl.
All known sites are in Washington State.

OWNERSHIP

COUNTY

NUMBER OF SITES

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Whatcom, Skagit, Snohomish, King, Kittitas

78

Wenatchee NF Kittitas

2

Washington State DNR** Snohomish

2

Olympic NF Gray's Harbor

6

* The number of sites is the number of locations on the ground where the species occurs. Subpopulations at nearby locations are often grouped under one record (Element Occurrence) number by the Washington Natural Heritage Program. Thus there are 46 element occurrence numbers but more sites on the ground where populations actually occur. It becomes important to consider all the sites on the ground when using GIS so the environmental variables at each location can be considered.

** In Greider Ridge Natural Resources Conservation Area.

D. Habitat Characteristics and Species Abundance

Galium kamtschaticum is described as inhabiting moist, cold, coniferous forests and mossy places throughout its range (Hitchcock et al. 1969; Anderson 1974; Calder and Taylor 1968; Hulten 1968; Scoggan 1979).

Olympic Peninsula - Sites on the Olympic peninsula are generally on northerly aspects, from 643-966m (1930-2900 ft.) in elevation, in the silver fir or mountain hemlock plant associations (Henderson et al. 1989), in wet canopy gaps. One site is on a terrace but the other 4 are on slopes ranging from 25 to 65 percent. There was not enough specific information to generalize further about plant associations, associated species, or other variables.

Western Cascades - Information from 76 locations on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest was evaluated to learn about Galium kamtschaticum habitat (Potash 1992). In general, this species grows on low angle slopes with saturated soils, under dense shrub (in some cases, ladyfern) thickets, in old-growth forest canopy gaps, from 500-1166m (1500-3500 ft.) in elevation. The Wenatchee National Forest population (subpopulations at 2 sites) are near Snoqualmie Pass; habitat at these locations is generally the same as that described in the previous sentence. There are exceptions; one of the largest and most vigorous populations on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest occurs on steep talus with a dense shrub cover, but the microsite had surface seepage.

Canopy gaps can be formed by a variety of processes but the gaps where Galium kamtschaticum occurs appear to be the result of saturated soils, i.e., it is simply too wet for tree establishment in these areas. These gaps tend to be relatively narrow areas within the forest, so light penetration is modified by the surrounding stand. Galium kamtschaticum does seem to require shade because it is usually found underneath dense shrub cover and not in full sunlight. The few Galium kamtschaticum stems that were observed growing in direct sunlight were somewhat chlorotic (Debra Salstrom, personal communication).

The majority of known sites are in the silver fir/devil's club-Alaska huckleberry plant association. Understory species most commonly associated with Galium kamtschaticum in the western Cascades are: Rubus spectabilis (salmonberry), Athyrium filix-femina (ladyfern), Oplopanax horridum (devil's club), Ribes bracteosum (stink currant), Tiarella unifoliata (foamflower), Vaccinium alaskense (Alaska huckleberry), Lysichitum americanum (skunkcabbage), Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern), Blechnum spicant (deer fern), Rubus pedatus (five-leaved bramble), Sphagnum spp. and other mosses. Following is a summary of those variables that were evaluated.

Elevation: Over half of the known sites occur between 500-833 m (1500-2500 ft.) in elevation, and 88 percent of the known sites occur between 500-1166 m (1500-3500 ft.) in elevation (Figure 3).

Slope: In the western Cascades Galium kamtschaticum tends to occur on low angle slopes in gentle depressions or on benches that are nearly flat (Figure 4). Seventy three percent of the sites occur on slopes of 10 percent or less.

Aspect: There was no apparent relationship between aspect and the locations of Galium kamtschaticum populations.

Seral Stage: Out of 28 sites studied in 1992, the majority (64%) were located in old-growth coniferous forests, 5 sites (17%) were in young plantations (sapling-pole stage), 3 sites (11%) were in nonforested plant communities, and 3 sites had no seral stage recorded (Potash 1992).

Moisture Regime: Galium kamtschaticum appears to be restricted to seeps with nearly year-round saturated soil. The plants were never found growing in standing water, but there was often surface water in the vicinity. This condition is the one thing all the sites have in common and appears to be the strongest correlate or "driving variable". Many sites had soil that was saturated to the surface in late August of 1992 after several weeks of summer drought and unusually high temperatures (Potash 1992). Technical wetland delineations were not conducted but it is expected that all Galium kamtschaticum sites would be classified as wetland by the Federal Interagency Committee for wetland delineation (1987). If this species is ever given a "wetland indicator status" (Reed 1988) it would likely be classified as obligate, i.e., there is 99 percent probability that it would be found growing in an area technically classified as wetland. The sites would probably fall under the category of "problem area wetlands" according to the 1987 interagency guidelines, due to the composition of the forested plant community.

Henderson et al. (1992) describe the moisture regime in terms of "topographic moisture" using a scale from 1-9, where 1 is a slope or position so extreme that water immediately runs off and 9 is a body of open water. When overlaid with a map of topographic moisture, 79 percent of the sites had a topographic moisture of 7 or 8. Such sites are very moist to wet (Figure 5).

Geology: The underlying bedrock or geologic type was determined from a geologic map of Washington for 28 of the sites (Weissenborn 1961). Galium kamtschaticum occurs on a variety of geologic types but was not usually found on sites with volcanic bedrock or unconsolidated glacial till. One possible explanation for this is that deeply fractured volcanic bedrock and unconsolidated tills are often well drained and not conducive to the shallow water table that this species appears to require.

Plant Association: Forest vegetation on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest has been classified into 60 different plant associations (Henderson et al. 1992). Galium kamtschaticum is usually found in the wet plant association groups of the silver fir zone, primarily in the silver fir/devil's club-Alaska huckleberry plant association (Figure 6). The second most common plant association is the silver fir/skunk cabbage. After this correlation was observed (Potash 1992), it was possible to find many new Galium kamtschaticum sites in subsequent years by conducting inventories in wet microsites within these 2 plant associations.

Associated Species: The species most commonly occurring with Galium kamtschaticum are listed in Table 2. Species considered "common" were those that were present in > 20 out of 76 sites. Species are ranked according to frequency of occurrence. The average percent cover for each of the most common species is also listed in Table 2. Not all the sighting reports quantified the percent cover; the number following the percent cover indicates the sample size.

Table 2. Presence of plant species most commonly associated with Galium kamtschaticum.

ASSOCIATED SPECIES

FREQUENCY
76 Total Sites

AVERAGE % COVER
(N = number of sites)

1. Rubus spectabilis

64 sites (84%)

33% cover where n = 48
2. Athyrium filix-femina

62 sites (82%)

9% cover where n = 40
3. Oplopanax horridum

58 sites (76%)

36% cover where n = 38*
4. Abies amabilis

55 sites (72%)

24% cover where n = 40
5. Tsuga heterophylla

51 sites (67%)

23% cover where n = 22
6. Ribes bracteosum

40 sites (53%)

8% cover where n = 24
7. Tiarella unifoliata

36 sites (47%)

14% cover where n = 17
8. Vaccinium alaskense

35 sites (46%)

18% cover where n = 20
9. Lysichitum americanum

31 sites (41%)

21% cover where n = 19
10. Gymnocarpium dryopteris

30 sites (39%)

11% cover where n = 13
11. Blechnum spicant

27 sites (36%)

7% cover where n = 16
12. Moss (unidentified)**

22 sites (30%)

63% cover where n = 11
13. Thuja plicata

22 sites (30%)

6% cover where n = 10
14. Rubus pedatus

22 sites (30%)

22% cover where n = 48

* Although the mean was 36% because of a few low values, over half the sites had a mean of 85% cover.

** In addition to these unidentified genera of mosses, 10 sites (13%) had an average of 10% cover of Sphagnum spp.

II. CURRENT SPECIES SITUATION

A. Why Species is Listed under Survey and Manage Standards and Guidelines

The concern for the viability of this species reflects its limited distribution within the range of the northern spotted owl. Galium kamtschaticum is considered vulnerable because it is on the southernmost edge of its global natural range. Populations of species on the edge of their natural range are important to maintain because they are often genetically distinct from populations at the core of the range. They may respond differently to microclimatic changes induced by timber harvest, drought, or global climate change and, therefore, may provide the genetic diversity required for the long-term viability of the species as a whole. However, the high number of populations that occur under protected land use designations may warrant a reevaluation of the ratings for this particular species.

B. Major Habitat and Viability Considerations

The major viability considerations for Galium kamtschaticum are loss of populations due to management activities that impact the habitat or population, or trampling from recreational use. Climate change could result in a decline in vigor for this species if sites get much warmer and drier, since it appears to require saturated soils.

C. Threats to the Species

  1. The major threat for this species may be change in hydrology resulting from management activities. Since Galium kamtschaticum grows in places with a shallow water table, management activities that affect downslope hydrology (e.g., construction of trails or roads) would have a detrimental effect on this species if a site becomes too dry. Conversely, if a site becomes inundated as a result of management activities (e.g., stream diversion), it would be too wet for Galium kamtschaticum, since it does not grow in standing water. The risk to the viability of this species is moderate-low if these management recommendations are implemented.
  2. Trampling, crushing, or other direct impacts can be caused by hiking, mowing, yarding, etc. This species is small, inconspicuous, and has fragile herbaceous stems and slender rhizomes. Therefore, it cannot tolerate any direct impacts.
  3. Increased light intensity could possibly have a detrimental effect. Only 2 individual stems out of many hundreds were observed to be growing out in full sunlight; most plants received only partial or indirect sunlight (Potash 1992).
  4. Although changes in hydrology resulting from climate change cannot be practically mitigated, the net effect would be the same as hydrologic changes as a result of management activities and it is important to recognize the role a species like Galium kamtschaticum may be able to play in documenting possible climate change (Maze and Robson 1992).
  5. Noxious weed infestations could have a detrimental effect on this species. Galium kamtschaticum is generally found in relatively undisturbed native plant communities.

D. Distribution Relative to Land Allocations

As of September 1997 there were 46 records known for Galium kamtschaticum within the range of the northern spotted owl, 43 of which occur on federally owned lands. Land allocations for known sites are grouped into the various categories in Table 3.

Within the land allocations, 83 percent of the populations are in Late-Successional Reserve or Wilderness areas, 1 percent are in a known Riparian Reserve. Eleven percent are in Matrix or Adapative Management Areas that could potentially be considered for timber harvest, 1 percent are on undesignated national forest land that has been newly acquired through land exchange, 1 percent are on privately owned land, and 4 percent are on Washington State land in a Habitat Conservation Area. (As most occurrences are on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, the merged land allocation from that national forest's plan is also given in parenthesis.) Since Galium kamtschaticum appears to be an obligate wetland species, all sites would be designated as interim riparian reserve (pp. C30-31 in the Record of Decision, USDA Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management 1994).

Table 3. Land Designations for Galium kamtschaticum Element Occurrence Records
within the range of the northern spotted owl.

OWNERSHIP

LAND DESIGNATION

NUMBER OF RECORDS

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Congressionally Reserved Areas (Wilderness)

11

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Administratively Withdrawn (Semi-Primitive Nonmotor. & Late-Successional Old-Growth - no harvest)

1

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Administratively Withdrawn (Alpine Lakes Special Area - no harvest)

1

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Part Wilderness, part Administratively Withdrawn (Alpine Lakes Special Area), part Other Ownership

1

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Part Wilderness, part LSR

1

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Late-Successional Reserve

15

Olympic National Forest Late-Successional Reserve

6

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Matrix (MA17-Timber Management Emphasis)

3

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Matrix (part MA17, part MA2b with some timber harvest allowed)

1

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Matrix (but in Riparian Reserve*)

1

Wenatchee National Forest Adaptive Management Area (could be harvested)

1

Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie NF Undesignated

1

"Other" Ownership N/A (could be harvested)

1

WA Dept. Of Natural Resources (WA State designated Conservation Area)

2

TOTAL (# records in analysis area (as of 9/97)

46

* Since Galium kamtschaticum appears to be an obligate wetland species, all sites would be designated as interim riparian reserve (pp. C30-31 in the Record of Decision, USDA Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management 1994).

III. MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

A. Management Goals for the Taxon

The management goal for Galium kamtschaticum is to assist in maintaining species viability within the range of the northern spotted owl.

B. Specific Objectives

  • Maintain populations and habitat throughout the species' geographic range.
  • Maintain existing ecological conditions such as hydrologic regime, temperature regime, and light regime. Maintain associated native plant community. These objectives are based on the assumption that the habitat where the majority of populations exist is the optimal habitat for the viability of this species, unless there is evidence to the contrary.

IV. HABITAT MANAGEMENT

A. Lessons from History

Long-term monitoring of this species has not been conducted yet, so it is not possible to address this issue very well at this time. The fact that 5 of the known sites occur in young plantations indicates that Galium kamtschaticum can survive these conditions but it is not known how long the populations have been there, how large they were prior to logging, or how long they will last. Two important points about these 5 sites located in younger stands are that the populations were continuous with a larger population in adjacent old-growth stands, and they were growing in seeps under dense shrub thickets.

B. Identification of Habitat Areas for Management

Western Cascades - There are a high number (41 out of 46 records) of healthy populations in protected areas, and these populations span an array of geographic locations and habitats. In general, therefore, in the western Cascades it may not be necessary to implement protective measures for populations where timber management is an emphasis, as long as the populations currently known or newly discovered in protected areas are maintained according to the recommendations described below. There is an exception to this general guideline: populations that are a significant range extension should be protected regardless of land use designation. This includes any population found > 5 miles east of the Cascade crest or > 5 miles south of Snoqualmie Pass.

Olympic Peninsula - The 6 known populations on the Olympic peninsula are all located in Late-Successional Reserve # RW108 (Figure 2). Known and newly discovered populations of Galium kamtschaticum within this LSR should be maintained according to the standards described below.

C. Management Within Habitat Areas

  1. Maintain wetland hydrology at known sites. Soils are saturated nearly or completely year-round, but the species does not grow in standing water. Maintenance of the existing hydrology at the site is critical. This includes maintaining the existing drainage patterns and avoiding compaction of the saturated soils.
  2. Avoid direct impacts that would crush the plants. This species has fragile herbaceous stems. Activities such as yarding, moving of equipment, or trampling on the stems would kill the current year's growth and may damage underground rhizomes as well. Direct trampling is primarily a concern during the growing season when the plant is above ground. Off-trail use on frozen or snow covered ground is probably not a problem.
  3. Maintain shade. In general, this species does not grow in direct sunlight. It usually occurs in relatively narrow canopy gaps where sunlight is modified by the surrounding stand, and it is almost always underneath a very dense growth of Rubus spectabilis (salmonberry), Oplopanax horridum (devil's club), Ribes bracteosum (stink currant), or Athyrium filix-femina (ladyfern). Maintain these associated species and the site conditions that support their growth.
  4. Avoid actions that would facilitate the invasion of weedy species. Galium kamtschaticum is not out-competed by other native vegetation, but has not been observed growing in highly disturbed weedy areas.

While protecting each individual is desirable, viability of Galium kamtschaticum is probably not threatened if a small percentage (< 5%) of the stems are impacted in large (i.e. several hundred stems) populations. This rule of thumb is intended for Galium kamtschaticum only and is definitely not an appropriate recommendation for most rare plants. For larger populations of Galium kamtschaticum, the obvious goal is to avoid all impacts, but if impacts are unavoidable, follow the "one and twenty rule": only disturb one stem if there are a total of 20 remaining, 2 if there are a total of 40 remaining, 3 if there are a total of 60 remaining, and so on.

D. Other Management Issues and Considerations

There is often a high cover of mosses at Galium kamtschaticum sites (Table 2). Whatever conditions are conducive to moss growth would probably also benefit this species.

Maintaining light conditions is not easy to define because the species usually grows under dense shrub thickets. Therefore, it may be possible in some cases to remove some of the surrounding trees without significantly altering the amount of shade required by Galium kamtschaticum, as long as the shrub thicket is not disturbed. It should be cautioned, however, that tree removal can also have a negative impact on Galium kamtschaticum by significantly altering site hydrology.

V. RESEARCH, INVENTORY, AND MONITORING NEEDS

The objective of this section is to identify opportunities for additional information which could contribute to more effective species management. The content of this section has not been prioritized or reviewed as to how important the particular items are for species management. While the inventory, research, and monitoring identified below are not required, these recommendations should be addressed by a regional coordinating body at the Northwest Forest Plan level.

A. Data Gaps and Information Needs

Conduct surveys in areas identified as suitable habitat on federal lands in Washington, excluding the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest.

The species is not very well distributed on the Olympic peninsula in that they are all within Township 23 North, Range 7 West (except for one population of unknown size in Range 8 West). Chances of long-term survival of Galium kamtschaticum on the Olympic Peninsula may be increased if populations occurred over a broader geographic area. This would help guard against stochastic events such as one wildfire eliminating the entire group of sites and would ensure that there are genetically diverse populations adapted to growing in an array of different sites. Genetically diverse populations are important to maintain because some populations will survive environmental changes while others may not.

B. Research Questions

  1. What variables should be measured to determine the health or fitness of an individual? Of a population? (For example: number of stems, number of fruiting stems, number of fruiting stems with viable seeds, presence of chlorotic (yellow) coloring in the leaves?)
  2. Is it necessary to distinguish between genetically distinct "individuals" or are the number of clonal stems an adequate way to quantify the population?
  3. Is it true that light level and wetland hydrology are the critical factors for maintaining optimal site conditions for this species? If so, can this species withstand canopy removal as long as its associated shrub layer is left intact and hydrology is not significantly altered? Are there other critical factors in addition to light and soil moisture?

    It is not clear what constitutes potential habitat since an entire mountainside may have vast acreages of what would seem like appropriate habitat, yet Galium kamtschaticum is not found there.
  4. What is the role of sexual reproduction vs. vegetative reproduction for this species? What is the pollination vector for this species?
  5. What distribution is necessary to maintain connectivity?

C. Monitoring Needs and Recommendations

Galium kamtschaticum usually grows in clumps or patches under very dense shrubs so it is very difficult to move around these sites and often impossible to see more than 1 meter ahead. Because of this, sampling designs that require placement of gridlines over an entire site are not practical for this species. Inventory strategies and/or monitoring designs that require mapping out or random sampling from all potential habitat are not practical for this species, since entire mountains can be covered with what could be called potential habitat.

VI. REFERENCES

Anderson, J. P. 1974. Anderson's flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Brigham Young University Press. Provo, Utah. 724pp.

Calder, J. and R. Taylor. 1968. Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Monograph No. 4, part 1. Canada Dept. of Agriculture, Plant Research Institute. Ottawa, Ontario.

Federal Interagency Committee for Wetland Delineation. 1987. Federal Manual for identification and delineating jurisdictional woodlands. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Washington D. C. Cooperative technical publication. 76 pp + appendices.

Henderson, J., R. Lesher, D. Peter, and D. Shaw. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. Technical paper R6-Ecol-TP-001-88.

Henderson, J., R. Lesher, D. Peter, and D. Shaw. 1992. Field guide to the forested plant associations of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Technical paper R6-Ecol-TP-028-91.

Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronquist, M. Owenby, and J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories; a manual of vascular plants.

Kuntze, C. E. O. 1891. [Taxonomic treatment of Galium rotundifolium var. kamtschaticum]. Revisio Generum Plantarum 1:282.

Maze, J. and K. Robson. 1992. Tracking changes in northern and southern distributional limits in interior British Columbia and Washington. Northwest Environmental Journal 7(2), p 351.

Oakes, W. 1841. [Taxonomic treatment of Galium littellii]. Magazine of Horticulture 7:179.

Potash, L. 1992. Species Management Guide for Boreal Bedstraw (Galium kamtschaticum). USDA Forest Service publication # R6-MBS-006-92.

Reed, P. B. Jr. 1988. National List of plant species that occur in wetlands; Northwest (Region 9). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 88 (26.9). 89 pp.

Schultes, J. A. and F. Schultes. 1827. [Taxonomic treatment of Galium kamtschaticum]. Mantissa 3:186.

Scoggan, H. J. 1978-1979. The Flora of Canada. National Museum of Science, national museums of Canada marketing services. Ottawa. Steller ex. Schult. & Schult. 1827. Mantissa, Vol. 3, p. 186.

USDA Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management. 1994. Final supplemental environmental impact statement on managing of habitat for late successional and old-growth species within the range of the northern spotted owl.

USDA Forest Service. 1991. Regional Forester's Sensitive Species List for Region 6 (Pacific Northwest Region). Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1994. Endangered, threatened, and sensitive vascular plants of Washington. Department of Natural Resources. Olympia. 52 pp.

Washington National Heritage Program. 1997. Endangered, threatened, and sensitive vascular plants of Washington -with working lists of non-vascular species. Department of Natural Resources. Olympia. 62 pp.

Weissenborn, A. E. 1961. Geologic map of Washington. Washington Division of Mines and Geology.

Figure 1. Map showing distribution in the western Cascades

Figure 1. Map showing distribution in the western Cascades.

* = known population(s) of Galium kamtschaticum on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest or on other land ownerships as noted.

 

Figure 2. Map showing distribution of Galium kamtschaticum on the Olympic Peninsula

Figure 2. Map showing distribution of Galium kamtschaticum on the Olympic Peninsula.

Figure 3. Frequency distribution of known Galium kamtschaticum on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest according to elevation. n = 68Figure 3. Frequency distribution of known Galium kamtschaticum on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest according to elevation. n = 68








Figure 4. Frequency distribution of known Galium kamtschaticum sites on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest according to slope. n = 67Figure 4. Frequency distribution of known Galium kamtschaticum sites on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest according to slope. n = 67








Figure 5. Frequency distribution of known Galium kamtschaticum sites on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest according to topographic moisture.Figure 5. Frequency distribution of known Galium kamtschaticum sites on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest according to topographic moisture. On this scale, a "1" represents an extremely dry site and a "9" represents a body of open water. n = 28







Chart: Plant Associations vs. Number of Sites

Figure 6. Frequency distribution of Galium kamtschaticum sites on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest according to plant association. n = 58

Tshe = Tsuga heterophylla, Vaal = Vaccinium alaskense, Lyam = Lyisiticum americanum

Abam = Abies amabilis, Opho = Oplopanax horridum, Rupe = Rubus pedatus

Tsme = Tsuga mertensiana, Atfi = Athyrium filix-femina, Blsp = Blechnum spicant

Madi = Maianthemum dilitatum, Pomu = Polystichum munitim, Cabi = Caltha biflora nnnn = non-forested


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