Management Recommendations•Group 16

Rare Gilled Mushroom (Decomposer): Clitocybe senilis (Fries) Gillet, Clitocybe subditopoda Peck
Uncommon Mushrooms (Decomposer): Collybia bakerensis Smith and Marasmius applanatipes Desjardin, Mycena hudsoniana Smith, Mycena monticola Smith, Mycena overholtsii Smith & Solheim, Mycena quinaultensis Kauffman
Rare Gilled Mushroom: Tricholoma venenatum Atkinson
Rare Gilled Mushroom (Decomposer): Tricholomopsis fulvescens Smith

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2
I. NATURAL HISTORY 3
A. Taxonomic/Nomenclatural History 3
B. Species Description 4
1. Morphology 4
2. Reproductive Biology 8
3. Ecology 8
C. Range, Known Sites 8
D. Habitat Characteristics and Species Abundance 10
II. CURRENT SPECIES SITUATION 11
A. Why Species is Listed under Survey and Manage Standards and Guidelines 11
B. Major Habitat and Viability Considerations 13
C. Threats to the Species 13
D. Distribution Relative to Land Allocations 13
III. MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 15
A. Management Goals for Taxon 15
B. Specific Objectives 15
IV. HABITAT MANAGEMENT 15
A. Lessons from History 15
B. Identification of Habitat Areas for Management 16
C. Management Within Habitat Areas 17
D. Other Management Issues and Considerations 17
V. RESEARCH, INVENTORY, AND MONITORING NEEDS 17
A. Data Gaps and Information Needs 17
B. Research Questions 17
C. Monitoring Needs and Recommendations 18
VI. REFERENCES 18

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Species: Clitocybe senilis (Fries) Gillet, Clitocybe subditopoda Peck, Collybia bakerensis Smith and Marasmius applanatipes Desjardin, Mycena hudsoniana Smith, Mycena monticola Smith, Mycena overholtsii Smith & Solheim, Mycena quinaultensis Kauffman, Tricholoma venenatum Atkinson, and Tricholomopsis fulvescens Smith

Taxonomic Group: Fungi

ROD Component(s): 1 & 3

Other Management Status: Clitocybe senilis, C. subditopoda, Collybia bakerensis, Mycena hudsoniana, Mycena monticola, M. overholtsii, M. quinaultensis, Tricholoma venenatum, and Tricholomopsis fulvescens are listed as sensitive taxa in a preliminary report on endangered, threatened, and sensitive macrofungi of Washington State by Ammirati (1994).

Potential Changes from Table C-3: Mycena quinaultensis

Range: Clitocybe senilis is extremely rare within the range of the northern spotted owl and is currently known from only one identifiable site located on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Clitocybe subditopoda is rare within the range of the northern spotted owl, and is currently known from only one site located in the Quinault Research Natural Area on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Within the assessment area, Collybia bakerensis occurs on several sites in both California and Washington; no known locations occur in Oregon. Collybia bakerensis is also known from several additional sites outside of the assessment area, including one site in British Columbia and several from non-owl habitat in northern California, Colorado, and Idaho. Marasmius applanatipes is rare within the range of the northern spotted owl, and is currently known from only two sites in California, one on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest and the other on the Klamath National Forest. Mycena hudsoniana is only known from Oregon and Washington with single sites on the Wenatchee National Forest, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, and Willamette National Forest. Four additional sites are located in the Mt. Rainier National Park and Olympic National Park. Mycena monticola is only known from Oregon and Washington with single sites on the Willamette National Forest, Wenatchee National Forest, and Winema National Forest. Two additional sites are located in the Mt. Rainier National Park and Olympic National Park. Mycena overholtsii is known from northern California north to Mt. Rainier in Washington. Single sites occur on the Klamath National Forest, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Wenatchee National Forest, and Mt. Rainier National Park. Mycena quinaultensis is known from northern California north to northern Washington. Specific sites only occur on the Olympic National Forest. All other sites for Mycena quinaultensis have information that is to vague to determine land allocation. Tricholoma venenatum is rare within the range of the northern spotted owl, where it is known from a single collection from the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. It also occurs in the central Sierra Nevada range in California and in the midwestern United States. Tricholomopsis fulvescens is only known from the extreme north part of Oregon north to Mt. Rainier in Washington. There are no sites of Tricholomopsis fulvescens on Federal land outside of National Parks.

Specific Habitat: Clitocybe senilis occurs in duff under Pinus and Picea spp. Clitocybe subditopoda occurs on needle beds under conifers in coastal forests of Washington and mid-elevational forests in Oregon. Collybia bakerensis is lignicolus on fallen conifer logs in Californiaand on Abies logs above 2500 m in the Cascades; in Washington it occurs on Tsuga logs. Marasmius applanatipes is found on conifer duff at high elevation. Mycena hudsoniana is usually found scattered in the duff or on woody debris near snow banks under conifer forests. Mycena monticola is usually found in gregarious, caespitose clusters in duff under high-elevation conifer forests, particularly those with Pinus spp. Mycena overholtsii is usually found in gregarious, caespitose clusters on decayed wood near snow banks or just after snow melt in high-elevation conifer forests, particularly those with Abies spp. Mycena quinaultensis is found in gregarious, caespitose clusters on senescent conifer needles or uncommonly on decayed wood in conifer forests. Tricholoma venenatum is found in association with the roots of assorted Pinaceae. Tricholomopsis fulvescens is found solitary on decayed conifer wood above 1,000 m elevation.

Threats: Fire is the most serious threat to all taxa except Tricholoma venenatum because of their saprophytic habit. Tricholoma venenatum is ectomycorrhizal so removal of potential host trees is a major threat. Threats to these taxa are those actions that disrupt stand conditions necessary for their survival. These include logging and other actions that that remove host trees or cause disturbance to woody debris, particularly road, trail, and campground construction.

Management Recommendations: Maintain habitat for all taxa at known sites by retaining forest structure and soil conditions. Avoid disturbance at known sites until additional data is collected on taxon viability. There are no sites of Tricholomopsis fulvescens on Federal land outside of National Parks so a goal for management of this taxon could be to identify likely habitat within the assessment area that may support populations and protect it until sufficient surveys reveal populations.

Information Needs: Revisit known sites and collect ecological data to more completely characterize habitat. Conduct inventories, particularly in late-successional reserves, Research Natural Areas and when appropriate where management treatments or projects are scheduled or proposed to locate additional populations of all taxa.

I. NATURAL HISTORY

A. Taxonomic/Nomenclatural History

Clitocybe senilis was originally described by Fries (1872) from Sweden. Clitocybe subcinera Bigelow (nom. invalid) is the only known synonym. It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Clitocybe subditopoda was originally described by Peck (1889) from North Elba, New York. There are no known synonyms. It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Collybia bakerensis was originally described by Smith (1944) from Whatcom Co., Washington. There are no known synonyms but this taxon was redescribed by Desjardin and Halling (1987). It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Marasmius applanatipes was originally described by Desjardin (1985) from Yuba Pass, Sierra Co., California. There are no known synonyms. It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Mycena hudsoniana was originally described by Smith (1941) from Olympic National Park,Washington. There are no known synonyms. It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Mycena monticola was originally described by Smith (1939) from McKenzie Pass, Willamette National Forest, Oregon. There are no known synonyms. It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Mycena overholtsii was originally described by Smith (1953) from Medicine Bow mountains, Albany Co., Wyoming. There are no known synonyms. It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Mycena quinaultensis was originally described by Smith (1935) from Quinault Lake, Grays Harbor Co., Washington. There are no known synonyms. It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Tricholoma venenatum was described from Michigan by Atkinson (1908). Known synonyms include: Melanoleuca venenatum. It is a gilled mushroom in the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

Tricholomopsis fulvescens was originally described by Smith (1960) from lower Tahoma Creek, Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington. There are no known synonyms. It is a member of the family Tricholomataceae in the order Agaricales.

B. Species Description

These fungal taxa are grouped together because they all belong to the family Tricholomataceae and all form similarly structured epigeous sporocarps.

1. Morphology

Clitocybe senilis is characterized by a dark gray pileus that fades to grayish buff with a matted fibrillose surface when young; a strongly farinaceous odor and taste; decurrent pale gray lamellae; a gray, glabrous stipe arising from coarse white rhizomorphs; and a pileipellis (at least on the disc) with a thin palisade of cylindric to clavate pilocystidia.

Pileus 1.5-5.5 mm diam, convex to plane, non-striate; surface moist to dry, matted fibrillose when young, becoming appressed fibrillose in age; dark gray at first, fading to grayish buff or sordid ochraceous buff. Odor and taste strongly farinaceous. Lamellae decurrent, close, narrow, white at first then pale gray. Stipe 20-45 x 3-7 mm, equal, glabrous, white at first but becoming gray in age, base with white tomentum and coarse white rhizomorphs. Basidiospores 4-6 x 2.5-3.5 µm, ellipsoid, smooth, inamyloid, white. Basidia 4-spored. Hymenial cystidia absent. Pileipellis of young specimens a palisade of erect cystidioid terminal cells, these cylindric to clavate, 20-37 x 5-8 (-12.5) µm, with pale brown plasmatic pigments, these elements becoming repent in mature pilei. Clamp connections present.

Clitocybe subditopoda is characterized by a relatively small, convex-depressed, hygrophanous, glabrous pileus colored watery gray brown when fresh and fading to gray buff in age, often striate when moist; a strong farinaceous odor and taste; close, adnate to moderately decurrent, gray to vinaceous buff lamellae; a relatively thick (3-6 mm), equal, watery gray brown stipe that lackscoarse white rhizomorphs; and growth in rings on needle beds under pine and spruce. Microscopically, this taxon is distinct because of relatively small, inamyloid, smooth, ellipsoid basidiospores, presence of clamp connections, and a pileipellis composed of repent, cylindric hyphae with pale brown plasmatic pigments.

Pileus 15-50 mm diam, convex at first, becoming plane to depressed in age, finely pellucid striate when moist; surface moist to dry, glabrous, hygrophanous; at first watery grayish brown with a slight vinaceous tint, fading to mouse gray, vinaceous buff, to grayish buff in age and with moisture loss. Odor and taste strongly farinaceous. Lamellae adnate to moderately decurrent, close, narrow, gray with a vinaceous tint. Stipe 20-60 x 3-6 mm, equal, watery grayish brown or when young covered with a thin layer of appressed white fibrils, base with watery gray tomentum. Basidiospores 3.5-6 x 2.5-4 µm, ellipsoid, smooth, inamyloid, white. Basidia 4-spored. Hymenial cystidia absent. Pileipellis a cutis of repent, cylindric hyphae 2.5-5 µm diam, slightly gelatinous, with pale brown plasmatic pigments. Clamp connections present.

Collybia bakerensis is characterized by a white convex pileus; relatively narrow, close, adnate to adnexed white lamellae; a small, white, subinsititious to non-insititious stipe; a tendency for basidiomata to blush pink in age; and abundant, cylindric to nodulose cheilocystidia.

Pileus 5-40 mm diam, convex to plano-convex; surface dull, moist to dry, glabrous to finely granulose, white overall, in age disc often becoming pink to pale grayish orange. Lamellae adnate to adnexed, close, narrow, white, flushed pink in age. Stipe 10-25 (-40) x 2-3.5 mm, cylindric, often curved, dry, apex white and prunose, base pubescent, pink to grayish red. Odor and taste not distinctive. Basidiospores 5.5-7.5 x 3-4.5 µm, ellipsoid, smooth, inamyloid, hyaline. Basidia 2-and 4-spored. Pleurocystidia absent. Cheilocystidia 22.5-45 x 6-13.5 µm, of two types: (1) cylindric to broadly clavate and obtuse and (2) irregularly cylindric and nodulose to lobed. Pileipellis a trichodermium (young) or cutis (mature) composed of hyaline, smooth, cylindric hyphae. Pileipellis and tramal hyphae inamyloid, non-gelatinous. Caulocystidia 30-48 x 8-15 µm, cylindric to broadly clavate, seldom lobed or contorted. Clamp connections present.

Marasmius applanatipes is characterized by a pileus colored red brown on the disc and gray brown or gray orange on the margin; a strong alliaceous (garlic) odor and taste; a compressed and cleft, entirely pubescent bi-colored stipe; and growth associated with mixed conifers at elevations above 6000 feet. Diagnostic microscopic features include: a hymeniform pileipellis of smooth, clavate cells; bifid cheilocystidia; absence of pleurocystidia; non-dextrinoid tramal tissues; and relatively broad, amygdaliform basidiospores.

Pileus 10-18 mm diam, convex to plano-convex; surface smooth to rugulose-striate, dry, glabrous, subhygrophanous; dark reddish brown overall when young, in age disc becoming dark brown to brown, margin fading to brownish gray, grayish brown, grayish orange or pinkish buff. Odor and taste strongly alliaceous (like garlic). Lamellae adnate to adnexed, subdistant to distant, broad, at first buff to grayish orange, in age becoming brown. Stipe 30-40 x 1.5-3 mm, gradually narrowed downward, typically compressed and cleft, but sometimes subcylindric, hollow, pubescent to velutinous overall, non-insititious, upper half buff to orange white or brownish orange, lower half brownish gray to dark brown or dark reddish brown. Basidiospores 8.5-10 (-12) x 5-6 µm, broadly ellipsoid to amygdaliform, smooth, hyaline, inamyloid. Basidia 2- and 4-spored. Pleurocystidia absent. Cheilocystidia 33-48 x 6-9 µm, cylindric to clavate, often bifid or with scattered knobs. Pileipellis a hymeniform layer of pyriform to broadly clavate erect cells, these ranging from hyaline or pale yellow and thin-walled, to dark brown and thick-walled. Tramal hyphae inamyloid, non-gelatinous. Caulocystidia clustered, 42-78 x 5.5-9 µm, irregularly cylindric, rarely lobed, with moderately thick hyaline walls. Clamp connections present.

Mycena hudsoniana is characterized by the following combination of features: a large, nearly black to dark gray, non-viscid, glabrous, striate pileus; pale gray lamellae; a gray to dark gray, dry stipe; faintly fragrant (not farinaceous nor raphanoid) odor; relatively large, pip-shaped, amyloid basidiospores; distinctive cheilocystidia of two types; broadly clavate, spinulose pleurocystidia; a non-gelatinous pileipellis and stipitipellis of diverticulate hyphae.

Pileus 20-50 mm diam, obtusely conic to campanulate at maturity, pellucid-striate; surface glabrous, moist; is nearly black, dark gray towards the margin, margin pale gray to white, fading to pale smoky gray overall with moisture loss. Odor faintly fragrant. Lamellae ascending-adnate, often with a short decurrent tooth, close, moderately broad, pale smoky gray with paler edge. Stipe 30-50 x 1.5-3 mm, cylindric, fragile, hollow, dry, minutely prunose when young, glabrescent, pale gray above, dark gray below, base covered with coarse white fibrils. Basidiospores 8-10 x 5-6 µm, pip-shaped, smooth, amyloid, white in deposit. Basidia 2-spored and 4-spored. Cheilocystidia of two kinds: (1) numerous, 21-45 x 8-22 µm, clavate to broadly clavate, densely covered with evenly spaced, cylindrical spinulae 1-3.5 x 0.8-1.4 µm, hyaline and (2) less numerous, irregularly shaped, contorted to constricted cells with unevenly spaced, longer and coarser excrescence. Pleurocystidia similar to cheilocystidia of type 1. Pileipellis a cutis of repent hyphae 1.5-3.5 µm diam with numerous diverticula, these ranging from wart-like to long and branched. Tramal tissues dextrinoid. Stipitipellis a cutis of diverticulate hyphae. Clamp connections present.

Mycena monticola is characterized by a pileus that is red on the disc and pink on the margin (and dries pink overall), has white to pale pink, non-marginate lamellae, and a stipe that is initially pink overall but becomes brown from the base upwards through maturation and handling. Microscopically, pleurocystidia are absent, the cheilocystidia are covered apically with numerous, fine, relatively long branched diverticula, the pileipellis is composed of cylindric, non-gelatinous hyphae with numerous fine, branched diverticula, and the stipitipellis is composed of sparsely diverticulate hyphae.

Pileus 10-30 mm diam, conic to campanulate, pellucid-striate to slightly sulcate; surface moist (but not viscid), hygrophanous, glabrous, disc red, margin flame red to pinkish red, fading to pink at maturity. Odor and taste not distinctive. Lamellae ascending-adnate, often with a short decurrent tooth, close, broad, white to pink with concolorous edges. Stipe 40-75 x 1-2.5 mm, cylindric, prunose at apex, glabrous elsewhere, base covered with coarse white fibrils, pink overall at first, turning dingy brown from the base upwards in age. Basidiospores 8-10.5 x 5-5.8 µm, pip-shaped, smooth, weakly amyloid, white in deposit. Basidia 4-spored. Cheilocystidia 14.5-35 (-49) x 4.5-18 µm, forming a sterile band on lamellae edge, subcylindric to clavate or irregular in outline with fairly numerous, unevenly spaced, simple to branched diverticula 5-18 µm long, hyaline. Pleurocystidia absent. Pileipellis a cutis of repent hyphae 2-3.5 µm diam covered with simple to branched diverticula 2-23 µm long, these often in dense clusters. Hypodermium of dextrinoid hyphae inflated up to 45 µm diam. Stipitipellis a cutis of repent hyphae with scattered diverticula 1-10 µm long, and terminal cells similar to cheilocystidia but smaller. Clamp connections present.

Mycena overholtsii is characterized by forming some of the largest basidiomata of any Mycena, with pilei up to 50 mm in diameter and a stipe up to 100 mm long. It forms a dark gray pileus that fades to pale gray or dingy buff in age and with exposure, lamellae that are white to gray and often shallowly decurrent, and a pallid stipe that has the lower half covered in downy white to bufftomentum.

Pileus 20-50 mm diam, convex, becoming plano-convex and pellucid-striate in age; surface slightly lubricous when moist, subhygrophanous, glabrous, sooty gray on the disc and slightly paler on the margin when young, fading in age and with moisture loss on the disc to pale gray, margin becoming grayish white to dingy buff or cream. Odor pungent, yeast-like; taste mild. Lamellae ascending to horizontal, broadly adnate to subdecurrent, close to subdistant, broad, white to pale gray, often staining yellowish or grayish where bruised. Stipe 40-100 x 2-6 mm, cylindric or enlarged and connate at the base, terete or compressed, puberulous to glabrous above, base covered with a dense layer of white to buff downy tomentum, apex white to buff, base concolorous but becoming dingy reddish brown under the tomentum in age. Basidiospores 6-7.5 x 3-4.5 µm, narrowly pip-shaped, smooth, amyloid, white in deposit. Basidia 4-spored. Cheilocystidia (30-) 45-65 x 2-5.5 (-8) µm, scattered and mixed with basidia, subcylindric to subfusoid, smooth (non-diverticulate), hyaline. Pleurocystidia uncommon, similar to cheilocystidia. Pileipellis an ixocutis of repent hyphae 1.5-3.5 µm diam, smooth or with a few scattered simple diverticula, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Pileus trama dextrinoid. Stipitipellis a cutis of repent smooth (or with few scattered diverticula) hyphae, with irregularly cylindric and often lobed terminal cells occurring in dense tufts and curving outward. Clamp connections present.

Mycena quinaultensis is characterized by forming obtusely umbonate, sulcate to wrinkled, viscid pilei colored brown black on the disc with buff brown margins, white lamellae that are ascending-adnate, and a viscid, brown stipe covered on the base with white fibrils. Microscopically, the pleurocystidia and cheilocystidia are fusiform to subcylindric and quite large, pileipellis and stipitipellis hyphae are non-diverticulate, and the pileus and lamellar trama are non-dextrinoid (an unusual feature in Mycena).

Pileus 10-25 (-40) mm diam, obtusely conic to campanulate, becoming obtusely umbonate and often with a small papilla on top of umbo, wrinkled, pellucid-striate to sulcate; surface glabrous, viscid, entirely brownish black when young, disc remaining so or fading slightly in age, margin fading through brown to buff brown. Odor and taste not distinctive. Lamellae ascending-adnate or with a short decurrent tooth, subdistant to distant, moderately brown, white at first then gray in age with concolorous edges. Stipe 40-70 x 1.5-3 mm, cylindric, finely prunose or more commonly glabrous, base with coarse white fibrils, viscid, brown to pale brown overall. Basidiospores 8-9.5 x 4.5-5 µm, pip-shaped, smooth, amyloid, white in deposit. Basidia 4-spored. Cheilocystidia and pleurocystidia conspicuous, 58-95 x 10-18 (centrally) µm, fusiform to subcylindric, frequently long-pedicellate, hyaline. Pileipellis an ixocutis of repent, smooth hyphae 2-4.5 µm diam embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Tramal tissues nonamyloid. Stipitipellis similar to the pileipellis with curved, poorly differentiated terminal cells. Clamp connections present.

Tricholoma venenatum is characterized by its white spore print, dry, squamulose, light tan pileus, and whitish gills. Tricholoma pardinum and T. huronense also have squamulose pilei. However, T. pardinum has a gray to grayish brown pileus and has larger basidiospores (8.6-9.5 X 5.7-6.7 µm ), and has large sphaero-pedunculate, thin-walled, hymenial cystidia. Tricholoma huronense has a smoky gray pileus often streaked pink on the margin, hymenial cystidia, and grows in association with hardwoods. Tricholoma serratifolium also is occasionally mistaken for T. venenatum due to its overall light coloration, frequent brown tinges on the pileus and occasional squamules on the pileus. However it lacks clamp connections, has a bitter taste, pink PDAB reaction, broader spores, cheilocystidia, and in general a smoother pileus surface.

Pileus 25-70 mm broad, convex-umbonate, dry, densely matted-fibrillose over the center with scattered light tan squamules elsewhere, pale buff to pale tan; context whitish or watery gray. Odor and taste: farinaceous. Lamellae sinuate attached, whitish to ivory buff. Stipe 30-60 x 7-17 mm, equal to slightly clavate or bulbous; silky-fibrillose; overall pale buff. Basidiospores 7.6-8.6 x 5.2-6.7, elliptic, smooth, thin-walled, hyaline, inamyloid. Cheilocystidia absent to rare. Clamp connections present.

Tricholomopsis fulvescens is characterized by yellow orange pileus with tawny fibrils, yellow lamellae that form white spores, a yellow brown stipe that darkens to rusty brown where handled, relatively large, broadly ellipsoid basidiospores, relatively small, clavate cheilocystidia, abundant pleurocystidia, and thick-walled, yellow pileipellis cells.

Pileus 30-50 mm diam, broadly convex; surface dry, appressed-fibrillose with the fibrils in fascicles near the margin; orange yellow to yellowish ochraceous on the disc with tawny fibrils, margin cream buff. Odor and taste not distinctive. Lamellae adnate, horizontal, moderately close, broad, pale yellow, drying cinnamon brown. Stipe 60-90 x 8-10 mm, narrowly clavate, hollow, dry, appressed-fibrillose, yellow brown, darkening to rusty brown where handled. Basidiospores 8-10 x 6-7 µm, broadly ellipsoid, smooth, inamyloid, white in deposit. Basidia 4-spored. Cheilocystidia abundant, 28-40 x 6-9 µm, clavate to fusoid-ventricose, hyaline. Pleurocystidia abundant, 50-80 x 6-9 µm, subcylindric to subfusoid, arising from the lamellar trama and not projecting very much above the hymenium. Pileipellis a cutis to lattice of tangled hyphae 3-8 µm diam, with thick, smooth, yellow walls. Clamp connections present.

2. Reproductive Biology

All taxa are mushrooms and thus are presumed to be dependent on wind for dispersal of spores. Animal (particularly arthropod) dispersal is also possible. No specific information on reproductive biology is available for any of these taxa at this time.

3. Ecology

All taxa, except Tricholoma venenatum, are saprophytes on organic material of conifers. Tricholoma venenatum is a presumed ectomycorrhiza former. Mycorrhiza is the symbiotic, mutually beneficial association between a fungus and plant root. This highly interdependent relationship is based on the translocation of mineral nutrients and water by the fungus to the host plant, while the fungus obtains photosynthetic carbon from the host plant. Many plants depend upon mycorrhizal fungi for adequate uptake of nutrient and survival in nature. Likewise mycorrhizal fungi depend upon their host for carbohydrate. All taxa are small to medium sized, epigeous mushrooms and presumably need moisture to fruit. No additional specific ecological information is available for any of these taxa at this time.

C. Range, Known Sites

Clitocybe senilis is known from 2 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl: Washington: Chelan Co., Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Barlow Pass and Oregon: Tillamook Co., Neskowin Creek. Clitocybe senilis was originally described from Sweden. There are at least 4 other sites in eastern North America (Bigelow 1982).

Clitocybe subditopoda is known from 6 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl:Washington: Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, Mt. Angeles; Jefferson Co., Olympic National Park, near Hoh River; Grays Harbor Co., Olympic National Forest, Quinault Lake; Grays Harbor Co., Olympic National Forest, Quinault Research Natural Area. Oregon: Clackamas Co., Mt. Hood National Forest, near mile bridge and Clackamas Co., Mt. Hood National Forest, above Welches. Clitocybe subditopoda also occurs in northeastern North America (Bigelow 1985).

Collybia bakerensis is known from 14 different sites within the range of the northern spotted owl: Washington: Jefferson Co., Olympic National Park, Enchanted Valley; Chelan Co., Wenatchee National Forest, Lake Ann; Chelan Co., Wenatchee National Forest, Glacier Peak Wilderness, Lyman Lake; Skagit Co., Wenatchee National Forest, Lewis Lake; King Co., Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Asaheil Curtis nature trail; Snohomish Co., Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Perry Creek, Forgotten Mountain trail; Snohomish Co., Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Barlow Pass; Whatcom Co., Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Silver Fir campground; Whatcom Co., near Anderson Creek; Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, Eagle Peak; Whatcom Co., Ross Lake National Recreational Area, Panther Creek. California: Siskiyou Co., Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Deadhorse summit; Siskiyou Co., Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Sand Flat campground; Klamath National Forest, Carter Meadows. No sites occur within Oregon. Collybia bakerensis was originally described from near Anderson Creek, Washington. Collybia bakerensis is also known from several additional sites outside of the assessment area, including 1 site in British Columbia and several from non-owl habitat in northern California, Colorado, and Idaho (Desjardin & Halling 1987).

Marasmius applanatipes is known from 2 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl in California: Siskiyou Co. Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Sand Flat on the flanks of Mt. Shasta and Klamath National Forest, Carter Meadows. Two other sites with two collections in California each are known from Yuba Pass, Sierra Co. and Placer Co., (Desjardin 1985). The two populations from outside the assessment area have been heavily logged and the taxon has not been recollected from these areas since.

Mycena hudsoniana is known from 7 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl: Washington: Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, just below Deer Lake; Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, Boulder Lake trail; Lewis Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, Reflection Lakes; Lewis Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, Narada Falls; Wenatchee National Forest, Smith Brook rd. , near Steven’s Pass; Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Barlow Pass, south fork of the Sauk River. Oregon: Lane Co., Willamette National Forest, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, watershed II. There are no collections known from California.

Mycena monticola is known from 6 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl: Washington: Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, Hurricane Ridge; Lewis Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, Reflection Lakes; Wenatchee National Forest, Kachess campground. Oregon: Willamette National Forest, McKenzie Pass; Wasco Co., Mt. Hood National Forest, Bear Springs campground; Jackson Co., Winema National Forest, near Lake of the Woods.

Mycena overholtsii is known from 8 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl; Washington: Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, Yakima Park rd. below Sunrise Point; Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, along Kotsuck Creek; Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, Ghost Lake; Snohomish Co., Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Barlow Pass; Chelan Co., Wenatchee National Forest, Steven’s Pass. California, Siskiyou Co., Mt. Shasta, near Horse Camp; Siskiyou Co., Klamath National Forest, Russian Wilderness Area, near Sugar Lake. It isalso known from Wyoming and outside the assessment area on the Okanogan National Forest in Washington. No collections are known from Oregon.

Mycena quinaultensis is known from 21 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl: Washington: Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, near Quinault Lake; Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, lower Soleduc River; Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, Lake Mills; Jefferson Co., Olympic National Park, Hoh River; Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, lower Tahoma Creek; San Juan Co., Crescent Beach; King Co., Schmitz Park;Whatcom Co., Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Shuksan Arm;Whatcom Co., Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, Baker Lake; Clallam Co., Olympic National Forest, Quinault Lake; Clallam Co., Olympic National Forest, Quinault Research Natural Area; Clallam Co., Olympic National Forest, Klahanie campground; Okanogan Co., Okanogan National Forest, near Wolf Creek. Oregon: Clackamas Co., Mt. Hood National Forest, Still Creek; Clackamas Co., Mt. Hood National Forest, near Rhododendron; Josephine Co., near Grants Pass; Lane Co., Willamette National Forest, near McKenzie Bridge; Lane Co., near Blue River; California, Del Norte Co., Six Rivers National Forest, Patrick Creek. California: Humboldt Co., near Orick; Humboldt Co., Humboldt Redwoods State Park.

Tricholoma venenatum is rare within the range of the northern spotted owl where it is known from a single site in Washington: Clallam Co., Olympic National Park, Olympic Hot Springs Trail.

Tricholomopsis fulvescens is known from 2 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl in Washington: Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, lower Tahoma Creek and Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, Green Lake. Another collection without specific locality information is in Oregon noted from along the Salmon River, Mt. Hood National Forest, Clackamas Co.

D. Habitat Characteristics and Species Abundance

Clitocybe senilis is apparently restricted to conifer forests.

Clitocybe senilis is usually found gregarious to subcaespitose in duff.

Clitocybe subditopoda can be found growing in fairy rings on needle beds of pine and spruce, rarely under hardwoods.

Clitocybe subditopoda is usually found gregarious to subcaespitose on needle beds in coastal to mid-elevation conifer forests.

Collybia bakerensis is restricted to conifer forests.

Collybia bakerensis is usually found scattered to gregarious on fallen conifer logs; in California on Abies logs soon after melting snow above 2500 m in the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges; in Washington on Tsuga logs in late summer to fall.

Marasmius applanatipes is apparently restricted to high-elevation (above 2000 m) conifer forests in northern California.

Marasmius applanatipes is usually found gregarious to subcaespitose in duff.

Mycena hudsoniana is restricted to conifer forests and is usually found scattered in the duff.

Mycena hudsoniana prefers to fruit near snow banks above 700 m elevation and is commonly found on woody debris or duff.

Mycena monticola is restricted to conifer forests, particularly those with Pinus spp. and is usually found in gregarious, caespitose clusters in duff.

Mycena monticola apparently is restricted to high-elevation forests above 1000 m.

Mycena overholtsii is restricted to conifer forests, particularly those with Abies spp. and is usually found in gregarious, caespitose clusters on decayed wood near snow banks or just after snow melt.

Mycena overholtsii apparently is restricted to high-elevation forests above 1000 m.

Mycena quinaultensis is found in gregarious, caespitose clusters on senescent conifer needles or uncommonly on decayed wood in conifer forests.

Tricholoma venenatum is found associated with roots of Pinaceae.

Tricholomopsis fulvescens is found solitary on decayed conifer wood above 1000 m elevation.

II. CURRENT SPECIES SITUATION

A. Why Species is Listed under Survey and Manage Standards and Guidelines

Potentially all taxa are at risk from management and recreational activities that remove or disturb duff or woody substrate.

Clitocybe senilis is known from 2 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 0 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 38 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 23 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands. This taxon is believed to be at medium risk under the Northwest Forest Plan because of its rarity, saprophytic habit, and disjunct population status.

Clitocybe subditopoda is more widespread than C. senilis and is more widely distributed in Washington than in Oregon; no populations are known from California. As in C. senilis under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 0 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 38 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 23 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands. This taxon is believed to be at medium risk under the Northwest Forest Plan because of its rarity, saprophytic habit, and close association with old-growth forests.

Collybia bakerensis is more widely distributed within northern spotted owl habitat in Washington than in California; no populations are known from Oregon. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 0 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 38 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 23 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands. This taxon is believed to be at medium to low risk underthe Northwest Forest Plan because of its fairly widespread distribution and saprophytic habit on fallen trees.

Marasmius applanatipes is known from 2 isolated sites within the range of the northern spotted owl, 2 additional sites lie outside the assessment area. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 0 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 38 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 23 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands. This taxon is believed to be at high risk under the Northwest Forest Plan because of its rarity and disjunct population status.

Mycena hudsoniana is more widely distributed in Washington than in Oregon; no populations are known from California. This inconspicuous taxon has been confused with other Mycena spp. in section Fragilipedes. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 40 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 15 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 10 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands. This taxon is believed to be at high risk under the Northwest Forest Plan because of its endemism, rarity, and close association with high-elevation old-growth forests.

Mycena monticola is distributed along the Cascade Mountains in Washington and Oregon; no populations are known from California. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 40 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 15 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 10 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands. This taxon is believed to be at high risk under the Northwest Forest Plan because of its endemism, rarity, and close association with high-elevation old-growth forests.

Mycena overholtsii is distributed along the Cascade Mountains in Washington and the northern Sierras in northern California; no populations are known from Oregon. Mycena overholtsii is also known from Wyoming and the Okanogan National Forest in Washington. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 40 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 15 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 10 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands.

Mycena quinaultensis is widely distributed in Washington, Oregon, and northern California. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 40 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 15 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 10 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands.

Tricholoma venenatum is rare and found on the west coast only from Washington. Within the range of the northern spotted owl it is known from a single population. This population is on protected Federal lands with high recreational use. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 0 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 2 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 83 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 15 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands.

Tricholomopsis fulvescens is known from 3 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 0 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 40 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 38 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and 23 percent likelihood of extirpation on Federal lands. This taxon is believed to be at high risk under the Northwest Forest Plan because of its rarity and disjunctpopulation status.

The seemingly preferred habitat of these taxa are somewhat under-collected and in critical need of survey. New populations may be found with additional surveys.

B. Major Habitat and Viability Considerations

The major viability consideration for Clitocybe senilis, C. subditopoda, Collybia bakerensis Mycena hudsoniana, Mycena monticola, M. overholtsii, M. quinaultensis, Tricholoma venenatum, and Tricholomopsis fulvescens is loss of known populations for each taxon within the range of the northern spotted owl. Considerations include all management or recreational activities that disturb the soil and duff or remove host trees. While Clitocybe subditopoda and Collybia bakerensis are more widespread they occur on relatively few sites within the assessment area. The presence of extant populations of these taxa in high recreational use areas could expose them to adverse impact due to management or recreational activities, particularly damage to host trees, and disturbance of soil or duff.

Relatively little is known about the autecology of Clitocybe senilis, C. subditopoda, Collybia bakerensis Mycena hudsoniana, Mycena monticola, M. overholtsii, M. quinaultensis, and Tricholomopsis fulvescens. They are presumed saprobes that associate with woody debris from a restricted group of Pinaceae species. Therefore disturbance that affects the host or the woody substrate will potentially strongly affect these taxa. Fire is a significant threat because these taxa are usually saprophytic on large woody debris, litter, or duff.

Relatively little is known about the autecology of Tricholoma venenatum. It is a presumed mycorrhiza former of Pinaceae species. Therefore disturbance that affects the host will potentially strongly affect this taxon. Fire is not a significant threat to this taxon because the general habitat where this taxon occur is cool and wet and not prone to fire. However, if fire were to occur, particularly a hot ground fire, it could harm populations from disturbance to soil or by damaging or killing host trees.

Climate change may result in decline in vigor of these taxa and may result in the extirpation of these taxa from the range of the northern spotted owl. An increase in temperature or a decrease in precipitation could affect all populations.

C. Threats to the Species

Threats to Clitocybe senilis, C. subditopoda, Collybia bakerensis Mycena hudsoniana, Mycena monticola, M. overholtsii, M. quinaultensis, Tricholoma venenatum, and Tricholomopsis fulvescens are those actions that disrupt stand conditions necessary for their survival, particularly host trees, large woody debris, litter, and duff disturbance. These include logging and other actions, particularly road, trail, or campground construction.

These taxa are not routinely harvested for use as food.

D. Distribution Relative to Land Allocations

Clitocybe senilis is only known from one identifiable site, Barlow Pass on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest in Washington which is located in a late-successional reserve. Theother collection of Clitocybe senilis is from along Neskowin Creek in Oregon and is too vague to delimit land ownership.

Clitocybe subditopoda is known from two congressionally withdrawn sites located on the Olympic National Park, Mount Angeles, and Hoh River. Two sites are located on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, one in the Quinault Research Natural Area designated a late-successional reserve, the other site is near Quinault Lake and ownership is uncertain. The two sites in Oregon are located on the Mt. Hood National Forest but the specific localities are unknown so land allocation is uncertain.

Collybia bakerensis is known from 5 sites that are congressionally withdrawn located on the Olympic National Park, Mt. Rainier National Park, Glacier Peak Wilderness Area, Ross Lake National Recreational Area, and the site at Carter Meadows on the Klamath National Forest. Two sites are on administratively withdrawn land: Lake Ann and Lewis Lake on the Wenatchee National Forest. Five sites are in late-successional reserves: Asahiel Curtis nature trail, Barlow Pass, Forgotten Mtn. trail, and Silver Fir campground, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest; Sand Flat campground, Shasta-Trinity National Forest, California. The site at Dead Horse summit on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest in California is on matrix land. One site is on non-Federal land: near Anderson Creek in Whatcom Co., Washington.

Marasmius applanatipes is known from one site that is located within a late-successional reserve: Sand Flat campground, Shasta-Trinity National Forest, California. The other location within the assessment area is congressionally withdrawn: Carter Meadows, Klamath National Forest, California.

Mycena hudsoniana is known from 4 sites that are congressionally withdrawn: 2 sites on the Olympic National Park and 2 sites on the Mt. Rainier National Park. Two sites are in late-successional reserves: Smith Brook rd. on the Wenatchee National Forest and Barlow Pass on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. One site is located in an adaptive management area on the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Willamette National Forest, Oregon.

Mycena monticola is known from 3 sites that are congressionally withdrawn: a site located east of McKenzie Pass, Willamette National Forest and single sites on the Olympic National Park and Mt. Rainier National Park. One site is located on Indian reservation land: Bear Springs Camp, administered by the Mt. Hood National Forest. One site is located in an adaptive management area: Kachess campground, Wenatchee National Forest. One site is located in a late-successional reserve: near Lake of the Woods, Winema National Forest.

Mycena overholtsii is known from 4 sites that are congressionally withdrawn: 3 on the Mt. Rainier National Park and one on the Russian Wilderness Area of the Klamath National Forest. The site near Horse camp belongs to the Sierra Club. One site is located within a late-successional reserve: Barlow Pass, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. One site is administratively withdrawn: Steven’s Pass, Wenatchee National Forest.

Mycena quinaultensis is known from 6 sites that are congressionally withdrawn: 4 sites on the Olympic National Park and one site each on the Olympic National Forest and the Six Rivers National Forest. Two sites are in late-successional reserves: Klahanie campground, Olympic National Forest and the Quinault Research Natural Area on the Olympic National Forest. The site near Still Creek on the Mt. Hood National Forest, the site on Shuksan Arm in the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, the site near Quinault Lake on the Olympic National Forest, the site near Crescent Beach in Washington, the Baker Lake site on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, the site near Wolf Creek on the Okanogan National Forest, the site near Rhododendron on the Mt. Hood National Forest, the site near Grants Pass, Oregon, the site near Blue River in Lane Co., Oregon, and the site near McKenzie Bridge on the Willamette National Forest are too vague to determine land allocation. Three sites are not on Federal land: Schmitz Park in Washington, near Orick, California and Humboldt State Park in Humboldt Co., California.

The one known site of Tricholoma venenatum is on congressionally withdrawn land.

Tricholomopsis fulvescens is known from two congressionally withdrawn sites located on the Mt. Rainier National Park, lower Tehoma Creek, and Green Lake. The site in Oregon on the Mt. Hood National Forest along the Salmon River is of unknown land allocation because the specific locality is not available.

III. MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

A. Management Goals for Taxon

The goal for the management of Clitocybe senilis, C. subditopoda, Collybia bakerensis Mycena hudsoniana, Mycena monticola, M. overholtsii, M. quinaultensis, Tricholoma venenatum, and Tricholomopsis fulvescens is to assist in maintaining the existing viable populations of these taxa on Federal land within the assessment area. Known sites on Federal land of these rare taxa should be protected until sufficient information is generated to suggest management can sustain taxon viability.

There are no sites of Tricholomopsis fulvescens on Federal land outside of National Parks within the assessment area so the goal for management of this taxon would be to identify likely habitat within the assessment area that may support populations and protect it until sufficient surveys occur to reveal populations.

B. Specific Objectives

Maintain habitat conditions at all known sites on Federal land for Clitocybe senilis, C. subditopoda, Collybia bakerensis Mycena hudsoniana, Mycena monticola, M. overholtsii, M. quinaultensis, Tricholoma venenatum, and Tricholomopsis fulvescens.

IV. HABITAT MANAGEMENT

A. Lessons from History

There has not been any specific management of sites for any of these taxa. Since all these taxa are presumptive ectomycorrhiza formers or saprophytes on large woody debris, duff or litter, these habitats and host trees should be protected where populations exist. Although not documented for these taxa, many fungi are harmed by air pollution, acid deposition, N deposition, and SOx (Gulden et al., 1992).

B. Identification of Habitat Areas for Management

The one specifically known site of Clitocybe senilis within the range of the northern spotted owl is on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. This site should be managed to maintain the viability of this taxon at this site.

Clitocybe subditopoda is known from a single site within the range of the northern spotted owl that has good potential to be managed to maintain population viability: Quinault Research Natural Area, Olympic National Forest, Washington. The other sites are either on National Park land or the specific localities are unknown.

Collybia bakerensis is known from 9 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl that have good potential to be managed to maintain population viability. In particular, the single sites on the Glacier Peak Wilderness, and the Klamath National Forest, the 2 sites on the Wenatchee National Forest, and the 4 sites on the Mt. Baker Snoqualmie National Forest, Washington and the Sand Flat campground site on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest should be managed to maintain population viability. One additional site with potential for management is the Dead Horse summit site on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest located on matrix land.

Both known sites of Marasmius applanatipes, one each on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest and the Klamath National Forest, should be managed to maintain population viability.

Mycena hudsoniana is known from 3 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl that have good potential to be managed to maintain population viability. In particular, the Barlow Pass site on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, the Steven’s Pass site on the Wenatchee National Forest, Washington and the site on the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon should all be managed to maintain population viability. There are an additional 4 populations on the Olympic National Park and Mt. Rainier National Park in Washington.

Mycena monticola is known from 3 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl that have good potential to be managed to maintain viability of selected populations. In particular, the single sites on the Wenatchee National Forest, Willamette National Forest, and Winema National Forest, should all be managed to maintain population viability. There are additional populations on the Olympic National Park and Mt. Rainier National Park in Washington. There is also a single population located on Indian Reservation land administered by the Mt. Hood National Forest.

Mycena overholtsii is known from 3 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl that have good potential to be managed to maintain population viability. In particular, the Barlow Pass site on the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, the Steven’s Pass site on the Wenatchee National Forest, Washington, the Sugar Lake site on the Klamath National Forest, California should all be managed to maintain population viability.

Mycena quinaultensis is known from 3 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl that have good potential to be managed to maintain population viability, in particular, the 2 sites on the Olympic National Forest and the single site on the Six Rivers National Forest. Many additional sites lack sufficient information to specifically locate. There are an additional 5 populations on the Olympic National Park and Mt. Rainier National Park in Washington.

The single known site of Tricholoma venenatum within the range of the northern spotted owl is inOlympic National Park.

Both known sites of Tricholomopsis fulvescens are on congressionally withdrawn land in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington.

The seemingly preferred habitat of the these taxa are somewhat under-collected by mycologists and in critical need of survey. New populations may be found with additional surveys.

C. Management Within Habitat Areas

Status of specific management activities is unknown for extant sites. However, at and around known sites, it is recommended that current habitat conditions and micro-climatic conditions be maintained, impacts from soil disturbing activities minimized, and damage or removal of host trees prevented.

The known sites of Clitocybe senilis, C. subditopoda, Collybia bakerensis, Mycena hudsoniana, Mycena monticola, M. overholtsii, M. quinaultensis, Tricholoma venenatum, and Tricholomopsis fulvescens on Federal land should be managed to include an area that is large enough to maintain the habitat and associated micro-climate of these population. The Regional mycologist is available to consult with field staff and managers on the size of the appropriate area for management.

D. Other Management Issues and Considerations

No additional management issues or considerations are identified at this time.

V. RESEARCH, INVENTORY, AND MONITORING NEEDS

A. Data Gaps and Information Needs

Conduct inventories, particularly in late-successional reserves, Research Natural Areas, and when appropriate where management treatments or projects are scheduled or proposed to locate additional populations of all these taxa in the assessment area.

Revisit the extant sites on Federal land of all these taxa and determine their status.

Data are lacking regarding the specific response of these taxa to management practices such as logging, road, trail, and campground construction, prescribed fire and collection of secondary forest products. Also needed are information about the area required to support viable populations, population age structure, dispersal requirements, and maximum distance over which populations can interact. Exact host associations for each fungus taxon need documentation.

B. Research Questions

C. Monitoring Needs and Recommendations

Known sites should be revisited periodically to assess compliance with management guidelines and evaluate impacts.

VI. REFERENCES

Ammirati, J. 1994. Endangered, threatened and sensitive macrofungi of Washington State. Official Letter to C. Turley, Science team leader, Washington State Dept. of Natural resources. Dated March 26, 1994.

Atkinson, G.F. 1908. A new poisonous mushroom. Botanical Gazette, 46:461-463.

Bigelow, H.E. 1982. North America species of Clitocybe. Part I. Beih. Nova Hedwigia 72: 1-280.

Bigelow, H.E. 1985. North America species of Clitocybe. Part II. Beih. Nova Hedwigia 81:281-471.

Desjardin, D.E. 1985. New marasmioid fungi from California. Mycologia 77: 894-902.

Desjardin, D. E., and R.E. Halling. 1987. California Collybias I. Collybia bakerensis: a common snowbank agaric. Mycotaxon 29: 321-327.

Desjardin, D.E., and S. A. Redhead. 1987. Marasmius salalis, a new Pacific coast North American species. Mycotaxon 29: 307-308.

Gulden, G., K. Hoiland, K. Bendiksen, T.E. Brandrud, B.S. Foss, H.B. Jenssen, and D. Laber. 1992. Macromycetes and Air Pollution: Mycocoenological studies in three oligotrophic spruce forests in Europe. Bibliotheca Mycologica 144: 1-81.

Norvell, L.L. 1996. unpublished report on file, Forestry Sciences Lab. Corvallis, Oregon.

Ovrebo, C.L. 1980. A Taxonomic study of the genus Tricholoma (Agaricales) in the Great Lakes Region. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toronto. unpublished.

Peck, C.H. 1889. Rept. New York State Mus. 42:18.

Shanks, K.S. 1994. A Systematic study of Tricholoma in California. Masters Thesis, San Francisco State University.

Smith A.H., H.V. Smith, and N.S. Weber. 1979. How to Know the Gilled Mushrooms, Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque.

Smith, A.H. 1944. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club 71:395.

Smith, A.H. 1960. Tricholomopsis (Agaricales) in the western hemisphere. Brittonia 12:41-70.

USDA Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management. 1994. Record of Decision for Amendments to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents within the Range of the Northern Spotted Owl, and Attachments. Washington D.C.