Management RecommendationsGroup 6
Rare Chanterelle: Polyozellus multiplex (Underwood) Murrill
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|2. Reproductive Biology||3|
|C.||Range, Known Sites||3|
|D.||Habitat Characteristics and Species Abundance||3|
|II.||CURRENT SPECIES SITUATION||3|
|A.||Why Species is Listed under Survey and Manage Standards and Guidelines||3|
|B.||Major Habitat and Viability Considerations||4|
|C.||Threats to the Species||4|
|D.||Distribution Relative to Land Allocations||4|
|III.||MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES||4|
|A.||Management Goals for Taxon||4|
|A.||Lessons from History||4|
|B.||Identification of Habitat Areas for Management||5|
|C.||Management Within Habitat Areas||5|
|D.||Other Management Issues and Considerations||5|
|V.||RESEARCH, INVENTORY, AND MONITORING NEEDS||5|
|A.||Data Gaps and Information Needs||5|
|C.||Monitoring Needs and Recommendations||6|
Species: Polyozellus multiplex (Underwood) Murrill
Taxonomic Group: Fungi
ROD Component(s): 1 & 3
Other Management Status: lyozellus multiplex is listed as a sensitive taxon in a preliminary report on endangered, threatened, and sensitive macrofungi of Washington State by Ammirati (1994).
Range: Polyozellus multiplex occurs in the coast and Cascades ranges of Washington, Oregon, and California. It also occurs in the elsewhere in the United States (south to New Mexico and east to Maine).
Specific Habitat: Polyozellus multiplex occurs in association with roots of Abies spp.
Threats: Removal of the hosts, Pinaceae, by logging, fire, road construction, or other management activities is the most serious threat to Polyozellus multiplex.
Management Recommendations: Maintain habitat for Polyozellus multiplex at known sites on Federal land by retaining late successional forest structure and soil conditions. Avoid disturbance at known sites on Federal land, including modification of canopy until additional data is collected on taxon viability.
Information Needs: Revisit known sites on Federal land of Polyozellus multiplex and collect ecological data to more completely characterize habitat. Conduct inventories, particularly in late successional reserves, Research Natural Areas and when appropriate where management treatments or projects are scheduled or proposed to locate additional populations of Polyozellus multiplex.
I. NATURAL HISTORY
A. Taxonomic/Nomenclatural History
Polyozellus multiplex was described from Maine (as Cantharellus multiplex) by Underwood in 1899 and transferred to Polyozellus by Murrill (1910). Other known synonym: Craterellus multiplex (Underwood) Shope. It is a black chantarelle in the family Thelephoraceae in the order Thelephorales.
B. Species Description
Polyozellus multiplex is a dark purple chantarelle with blunt gray-violet hymenial ridges and it has a white spore print. Craterellus cinereus var. multiplex is more brown, has elliptical, smooth spores (8-11 x 5-6 µm) and tissues which do not stain green in KOH. Gomphus clavatus is paler, has elliptical, smooth spores (9-12 x 5-6 µm) and tissues which do not stain green in KOH.
Pileus 50-150 mm broad, often multiply pileate, plano-convex to flabelliform, occasionally becoming slightly to deeply depressed when mature, slightly fibrillose to rough-glabrous, dry, darkpurple violaceous to purple black or paler with violet tones predominating. Context somewhat brittle, violet to black, becoming dark black green in KOH. Odor mild to faintly pungent. Taste not distinctive. Hymenial ridges strongly decurrent, forked, often anastomosing, ± blunt, concolorous with pileus but frequently becoming gray violet when dried. Stipe 30-50 (-70) x 8-25 mm, compound, upper portion covered by decurrent ridges, dark violaceous black. Basidiospores 4.5-9 x 4.5-8 µm, tuberculate to angular tuberculate, inamyloid. Tramal tissues green-black when mounted in KOH.
2. Reproductive Biology
This taxon is a mushroom and thus is presumed to be dependent on wind for dispersal of spores. Animal (especially arthropod) dispersal is also possible. No specific information on reproductive biology is available for this taxon at this time.
This taxon is a presumed ectomycorrhiza former. Mycorrhiza is the symbiotic, mutually beneficial association between a fungus and plant root. This highly interdependent relationship is based on the translocation of mineral nutrients and water by the fungus to the host plant while the fungus obtains photosynthetic carbon from the host plant. Some mycorrhizal associations are highly specific. Many plants depend upon mycorrhizal fungi for adequate uptake of nutrients and survival in nature. Likewise mycorrhizal fungi depend upon their host plant for carbohydrate. No specific ecological information is available for this taxon at this time except that it forms ectomycorrhiza with Abies spp.
C. Range, Known Sites
Polyozellus multiplex is known from 10 sites: Washington: Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, St. Andrews Creek; Pierce Co., Mt. Rainier National Park, near Carbon River Ranger Station; Skagit Co., North Cascades National Park, Easy Pass trailhead; Lewis Co., Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Cispus Environmental Center; Snohomish Co., Mt. Pilchuck State Park. Oregon: Clackamas Co., Mt. Hood National Forest , Little Crater Lake; Marion Co., Willamette National Forest, Battle Axe Creek drainage, 1 mile east of Jawbone Flat; Lane Co., near Mule Prairie; Linn Co., Willamette National Forest, Lost Prairie campground. California: Humboldt Co., Hoopa Indian Reservation, South Mill Creek rd. It also occurs elsewhere in the United States (south to New Mexico and east to Maine).
D. Habitat Characteristics and Species Abundance
Polyozellus multiplex occurs in association with roots of Abies spp. in late-successional, mid elevation, montane, conifer forests.
II. CURRENT SPECIES SITUATION
A. Why Species is Listed under Survey and Manage Standards and Guidelines
Polyozellus multiplex is a regionally rare taxon known from only 10 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl. It reaches the southern limit of its range in Humboldt Co., California. Under option 9, this taxon was considered to have a 22 percent likelihood of being well distributed throughout its range, 43 percent likelihood of being locally restricted, 27 percent likelihood of restriction to refugia, and an 8 percent likelihood of extirpation on federal lands.
B. Major Habitat and Viability Considerations
The major viability consideration for Polyozellus multiplex is loss of known populations on Federal land within the range of the northern spotted owl. Considerations include all management or recreational activities that remove host trees or disturb the soil and duff. The predomination of extant populations of Polyozellus multiplex in high recreational use areas exposes it to adverse impact due to management or recreational activities, particularly those that disturb the soil or damage host trees.
Climate change may result in decline in vigor of this taxon and may result in the extirpation from the range of the northern spotted owl. Climate change could potentially impact all populations of Polyozellus multiplex. An increase in temperature or a decrease in precipitation could affect all populations.
C. Threats to the Species
Threats to Polyozellus multiplex are those actions that disrupt stand conditions necessary for their survival particularly disturbance to host trees and associated soil and humus. These include logging, road, trail, and campground construction that remove litter, duff or potential mycorrhizal hosts, or otherwise modify microclimate.
Polyozellus multiplex is sometimes harvested for consumption on a recreational basis. The long term effects of mushroom harvest are currently unknown.
D. Distribution Relative to Land Allocations
Polyozellus multiplex is known from 3 sites on non-Federal land: Hoopa Indian Reservation, Mule Prairie, and Mt. Pilchuck State Park. It is known from a single site on administratively withdrawn land: Little Crater Lake. Three sites are on congressionally withdrawn land in Mt. Rainier National Park and North Cascades National Park. Two sites are in late-successional reserves: Jawbone Flat and Cispus Environmental Center. A single site is on matrix land on the Willamette National Forest.
III. MANAGEMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
A. Management Goals for Taxon
The goal for management of Polyozellus multiplex is to assist in maintaining viable populations within the assessment area. Known sites on Federal land of this rare taxon should be protected until sufficient information is generated to suggest management can sustain taxon viability, particularly on Federal land.
B. Specific Objectives
Maintain habitat conditions at all known sites on Federal land for Polyozellus multiplex.
IV. HABITAT MANAGEMENT
A. Lessons from History
There has not been any specific management of sites for Polyozellus multiplex. Since Polyozellusmultiplex is a presumptive mycorrhiza former, an abundance of potential host trees should be protected where fungal populations exist. When mycorrhiza host trees are damaged or removed a negative impact is usually reflected in the population of the fungal partner. Although not documented for this taxon, many fungi are harmed by air pollution, acid deposition, N deposition, and SOx (Gulden et al., 1992).
B. Identification of Habitat Areas for Management
Polyozellus multiplex is only known from 4 sites within the range of the northern spotted owl that have good potential to be managed to maintain population viability. The sites on the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Mt. Hood National Forest, and Willamette National Forest should be managed to maintain population viability.
The seemingly preferred habitat of the this taxon is somewhat under-collected by mycologists and in critical need of survey. New populations may be found with additional surveys.
C. Management Within Habitat Areas
Status of specific management activities is unknown for extant sites. However, at and around known sites, it is recommended that current habitat conditions and micro-climatic conditions be maintained, impacts from soil disturbing activities minimized, and damage or removal of host trees be prevented.
The known sites on Federal land of Polyozellus multiplex should be managed to include an area that is large enough to maintain the habitat and associated micro-climate of the population. The Regional mycologist is available to consult with field staff and managers on the size of the appropriate area for management.
D. Other Management Issues and Considerations
No additional management issues or considerations are identified at this time.
V. RESEARCH, INVENTORY AND MONITORING NEEDS
A. Data Gaps and Information Needs
Conduct inventories, particularly in late successional reserves, Research Natural Areas and when appropriate where management treatments or projects are scheduled or proposed, in late-successional, low to mid elevational, conifer forests containing Abies spp. to locate additional populations of Polyozellus multiplex.
Data are lacking regarding the specific response of these taxa to management practices such as logging, road, trail, and campground construction, prescribed fire and collection of secondary forestproducts. Also needed for each fungal taxon is information about the area required to support viable populations, population age structure, dispersal requirements and maximum distance over which populations can interact. Exact host associations for each fungal taxon needs documentation.
B. Research Questions
C. Monitoring Needs and Recommendations
Known sites of Polyozellus multiplex should be revisited periodically to assess compliance with management guidelines and evaluate impacts.
Ammirati, J. 1994. Endangered, threatened and sensitive macrofungi of Washington State. Official Letter to C. Turley, Science team leader, Washington State Dept. of Natural resources. Dated March 26, 1994.
Corner, E.J.H. 1966. A Monograph of Cantharelloid Fungi. Oxford University Press, Cambridge.
Feibelman,T., P. Bayman, and W.G. Cibula. 1994. Length variation in the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA in chantarelles. Mycol. Res. 98:614-618.
Gulden, G., K. Hoiland, K. Bendiksen, T.E. Brandrud, B.S. Foss, H.B. Jenssen, and D. Laber. 1992. Macromycetes and Air Pollution: Mycocoenological studies in three oligotrophic spruce forests in Europe. Bibliotheca Mycologica 144: 1-81.
Murrill, W.A. 1910 Chanterel. North American Flora 9:167-171.
Norvell, L.L. unpublished report on file, Corvallis Forestry Sciences Lab.