mcpeaks
BLM
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT
Bull elk on Elk Mountain near Newcastle, Wyoming. Photo by Nate West. Oil rig in Wyoming. Wild horse near Rock Springs, Wyoming. Coal mining operations in the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. Pronghorn in Wyoming.
Wyoming
BLM>Wyoming>Resources>Public Room>GIS>Metadata>30meter DEMs for Wyoming
Print Page

30meter Digital Elevation Models for Wyoming

Metadata:

Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 1997
Title: 30 meter Digital Elevation Models for Wyoming
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U. S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage: <URL:http://www.sdvc.uwyo.edu/24k/dem.html>  
Description:
Abstract:
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a regular array of elevations (in meters) cast on a designated coordinate projection system.

These digital elevation models are at 30 meter resolution, which corresponds to approx. 1:24,000 scale. See the browse graphic for the availability of the DEMs in Wyoming. The DEM's are distributed in 1:100,000-scale quadrangle blocks (56 in Wyoming) and in Universal Transverse Mercator projection, either zone 12 or zone 13, North American Datum of 1983.

There are two types of 30m DEMs available at the 1:24,000-scale: level 1 and level 2. Level 1 DEMs make up the larger percentage of DEMs available for Wyoming. Level 2 DEMs are newer and are of higher quality, produced by the USGS using a more advanced algorithm for interpolation.  

Purpose:
DEM's can be used as source data for digital orthophotos, and, as layers in geographic information systems, for earth science analysis. DEM's can also serve as tools for volumetric analysis, for site location of towers, or for drainage basin delineation. These data were collected as part of the National Mapping Program.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1979
Ending_Date: 1994
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: In work
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Irregular
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -111.36
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -104
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.0
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 41.0
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Theme_Keyword: DEM
Theme_Keyword: digital elevation model
Theme_Keyword: digital terrain model
Theme_Keyword: hypsography
Theme_Keyword: altitude
Theme_Keyword: height
Theme_Keyword: contour line
Theme_Keyword: digital contours
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: none
Place_Keyword: Wyoming  
Access_Constraints: None  
Use_Constraints:
None.  
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Data Manager
Contact_Organization: Spatial Data and Visualization Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: Box 4008 University Station
City: Laramie
State_or_Province: Wyoming
Postal_Code: 82071
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 307-766-2751
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: n/a
Hours_of_Service: 8:00 - 5:00 MST  
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Stored in Arc/Info 7.04 software as an export (.e00) file. The data is in raster format, or a "grid" in Arc/Info terminology.

Browse_graphic_file_type gif

Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: <URL:http://www.sdvc.uwyo.edu/images/24dem.gif>dem.gif
Browse_Graphic_File_Description: availability of 30 meter digital elevation models in Wyoming
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: gif 
Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
The accuracy of a DEM is dependent upon the level of detail of the source and the grid spacing used to sample that source. The primary limiting factor for the level of detail of the source is the scale of the source materials. The proper selection of grid spacing determines the level of content thatmay be extracted from a given source during digitization.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The fidelity of the relationships encoded in the data structure of the DEM are automatically verified using a USGS software program upon completion of the data production cycle. The test verifies full compliance to the DEM specification.
Completeness_Report:
The DEM is visually inspected for completeness on a DEM view and edit system for the purpose of performing a final quality control and if necessary edit of the DEM. The physical format of each digital elevation model is validated for content completeness and logical consistency during production quality control and prior to archiving in the National Digital Cartographic Data Base. Due to the variable orientation of the quadrilateral in relation to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection grid, profiles that pass within the bounds of the DEM quadrilateral, may be void of elevation grid points, and are not represented in the DEM. This condition occurs infrequently and is always the first or last profile of the dataset. Level 2 DEM: Level 2 DEM's may contain void areas due to interruptions to contours in the source graphic or DLG. Void area elevation grid posts are assigned the value of -32,767. In addition, suspect elevation areas may exist in the DEM but are not specifically identified. Suspect areas can be located on the source graphic as a "disturbed surface, " symbolized by contours overprinted with photorevised or other surface patterns.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The horizontal accuracy of the DEM is expressed as an estimated root mean square error (RMSE). The estimate of the RMSE is based upon horizontal accuracy tests of the DEM source materials which are selected as equal to or less than intended horizontal RMSE error of the DEM. The testing of horizontal accuracy of the source materials isaccomplished by comparing the planimetric (X and Y) coordinates of well-defined ground points with the coordinates of the same points as determined from a source of higher accuracy.
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy:
Vertical_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
The vertical RMSE statistic is used to describe the vertical accuracy of a DEM, encompassing both random and systematic errors introduced during production of the data. The RMSE is encoded in element number 5 of record C of the DEM. Accuracy is computed by a comparison of linear interpolated elevations in the DEM with corresponding known elevations. Test points are well distributed, representative of the terrain, and have true elevations with accuracies well within the DEM accuracy criteria. Acceptable test points include, in order of preference: field control, aerotriangulated test points, spot elevations, or points on contours from existing source maps with appropriate contour interval. A minimum of 28 test points per DEM is required to compute the RMSE, which is composed of a single test using 20 interior points and 8 edge points. Edge points are those which are located along, at, or near the quadrangle neatlines and are deemed by the editor to be useful to evaluating the accuracy of the edge of the DEM. Collection of test point data and comparison of the DEM with the quadrangle hypsography are conducted by the quality control units within the USGS.

There are three types of DEM vertical errors; blunder, systematic and random. These errors are reduced in magnitude by editing but cannot be completely eliminated. Blunder errors are those errors of major proportions and are easily identified and removed during interactive editing. Systematic errors are those errors that follow some fixed pattern and are introduced by data collection procedures and systems. These error artifacts include: vertical elevation shifts, misinterpretation of terrain surface due to trees, buildings and shadows, and fictitious ridges, tops, benches or striations. Random errors result from unknown or accidental causes.

DEM's are edited to correctly depict elevation surfaces that correspond to water bodies of specified size.

Level 1 DEM: A RMSE of 7-meters or less is the desired accuracy standard. A RMSE of 15-meters is the maximum permitted. A 7.5-minute DEM at this level has an absolute elevation error tolerance of 50 meters (approximately three times the 15-meter RMSE) for blunder errors for any grid node when compared to the true elevation. Any array of points in the DEM can not encompass more than 49 contiguous elevations in error by more than 21 meters (three times the 7-meter RMSE). Systematic errors that are within stated accuracy standards are tolerated.

Level 2 DEM: A vertical RMSE of one-half of the contour interval, determined by the source map, is the maximum permitted. Systematic errors may not exceed one contour interval, determined by the source map, is the maximum permitted. Systematic errors may not exceed one contour interval specified by the source graphic. Level 2 DEMs have been processed or smoothed for consistency and edited to remove identifiable systematic errors.  

Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 1997
Title: digital contour lines
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Type_of_Source_Media: magnetic tape
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1979
Ending_Date: 1994
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: CONTOUR1
Source_Contribution:
hypsographic vector information which is interpolated to regular grid posts to form DEM grids in 30- by 30- meter UTM data spacing within the 7.5 minute DEM bounds.  
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: unknown
Title: photo ID number
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Type_of_Source_Media: transparency
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1979
Ending_Date: 1994
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: PHOTO1
Source_Contribution: elevation values 
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Publication_Date: unknown
Title: project control
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Type_of_Source_Media: magnetic tape
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1979
Ending_Date: 1994
Source_Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: CONTROL1
Source_Contribution: ground control points  
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The production procedures, instrumentation, hardware and software used in the collection of standard U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) vary depending on systems used at the contractor, cooperator or National Mapping Division (NMD) production sites. This process step describes, in general, the process used in the production of standard USGS DEM datasets.

Level 1 DEM: Level 1 DEM's are acquired photogrammetrically by manual profiling or image correlation techniques from National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) or equivalent source photographs. Level 1 30-minute DEM's may be derived or resampled from level 1 7.5- minute DEM's.

Level 2 DEM: Level 2 DEM's are produced by converting 1:24,000-scale and 1:100,000-scale hypsography digital line graph (DLG) data to DEM format or the DEM's are generated from vector data derived from scanned raster files of USGS 1:24.000-scale or 1:100,000-scale map series contour separates.

Level 3 DEM: Level 3 DEM's are created from DLG data that has been vertically integrated with all categories of hypsography, hydrography, ridge line, break line, drain files and all vertical and horizontal control networks. The production of level 3 DEMs requires a system of logic incorporated into the software interpolation algorithms that clearly differentiates and correctly interpolates between the various types of terrain, data densities and data distribution.

Water body editing: DEM surface areas corresponding to water bodies are flattened and assigned map specified or estimated surface elevations. Water body areas are defined as ponds, lakes, and reservoirs that exceed 0.5 inches at map scale and double line drainage that exceeds 0.25 inches at map scale. Water body shorelines are derived either from a hypsographic DLG or by interactive delineation from 1:24,000- scale or 1:100,000-scale USGS map series.

Edge matching: DEM datasets within a project area (consisting of a number of adjacent files) are edge matched to assure terrain surface continuity between files. Edge matching is the process of correcting adjacent elevation values along common edges. The objective of edge matching is to create more accurate terrain representations by correcting the alignment of ridges and drains, and overall topographic shaping within an approximately 25-30 row or column grid post zone on both edges.

Quality control: DEM's are viewed on interactive editing systems to identify and correct blunder and systematic errors. DEM's are verified for physical format and logical consistency at the production centers and before archiving in the National Digital Cartographic Data Base (NDCDB) utilizing the Digital Elevation Model Verification System (DVS) software.

Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: CONTOUR1, PHOTO1, CONTROL1
Process_Date: unknown

 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:

Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: raster  
Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Planar:
Grid_Coordinate_System:
Grid_Coordinate_System_Name: Universal Transverse Mercator
Universal_Transverse_Mercator:
UTM_Zone_Number: 12-13
Transverse_Mercator:
Scale_Factor_at_Central_Meridian: .09996
Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -107
Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 0.0
False_Easting: 0.0
False_Northing: 0.0
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 30
Ordinate_Resolution: 30
Planar_Distance_Units: meters
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodetic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257
Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The digital elevation model is composed of a 6- character integer raster representing a gridded form of a topographic map hypsography overlay, with a value in meters. In Wyoming, elevations range from approximately 900-4200 meters. 
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
U.S.Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1992, Standards for digital elevation models: Reston, VA, 
Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Data Manager
Contact_Organization: Spatial Data and Visualization Center
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: Box 4008 University Station
City: Laramie
State_or_Province: Wyoming
Country: USA
Postal_Code: 82071
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 307-766-2751
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: n/a
Distribution_Liability:
The distributor shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of this data, based on the description of appropriate/inappropriate used described in this metadata document.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ARCE (Arc/Info export)
Format_Version_Number: 7.0.4
Format_Version_Date: 1995
File_Decompression_Technique: Export file was created using defaults, no compression
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name: ftp.sdvc.uwyo.edu or <http://www.sdvc.uwyo.edu/clearinghouse>
Access_Instructions: <http://www.sdvc.uwyo.edu/clearinghouse/howto.html>
Online_Computer_and_Operating_System:
Both the ftp and WWW server which this data is available from is a Silicon Graphics Challenge server, running the IRIX 6.2 UNIX operating system.
Fees:
No fees are required for downloading the data that is on-line. Some fees may be required to cover costs of tapes if data is required on tape media.  
Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 19970701
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Margo Berendsen
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: Box 4008 University Station
City: Laramie
State_or_Province: Wyoming
Postal_Code: 82071
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 307-766-2751
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: meh@uwyo.edu
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

Generated by mp version 2.4.13 on Mon Sep 18 14:39:46 2000