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Bull elk on Elk Mountain near Newcastle, Wyoming. Photo by Nate West. Oil rig in Wyoming. Wild horse near Rock Springs, Wyoming. Coal mining operations in the Powder River Basin of northeastern Wyoming. Pronghorn in Wyoming.
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Wyoming PRB Clinker

Metadata:

Identification_Information:

  Citation:

    Citation_Information:

      Originator: Ed Heffern, BLM Wyoming State Office

      Publication_Date: 01/06/2012

      Publication_Time: 14:24

      Title: Wyoming PRB clinker

      Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: vector digital data

      Series_Information:

      Publication_Information:

      Larger_Work_Citation:

        Citation_Information:

          Publication_Date:

          Title:

          Series_Information:

          Publication_Information:

  Description:

    Abstract: Clinker (also locally called scoria) is a unique type of rock that is found in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, as well as elsewhere in the coal-bearing basins of the Rocky Mountains and Northern Plains. Clinker is rock that has been altered by natural burning of coal beds. Natural coal fires caused by range and forest fires, lightning strikes, and spontaneous combustion have left a record of clinker on hilltops and ridges throughout the landscape of the PRB. The reddish clinker rock formed when fires in coal outcrops burned back into hillsides and baked, welded, and melted the overlying sandstone and shale. Clinker covers about 1450 square miles of the PRB - about 1100 square miles in Montana (1094 in ArcGIS calculation) and 350 in Wyoming. It represents the natural burning of tens to hundreds of billions of tons of coal in the past few million years. As a coal fire advances back into a hillside, the overburden sags into the void left by the burned coal, leaving a chaotic mass of jumbled rocks. Chimneys of fused and melted breccia form in cracks where intense heating occurred. Baked sandstone hardens to brick, while baked shale layers weld together to form ceramic porcellanite. Paralava forms where rocks were heated enough to melt. At the base of the clinker is a thin layer of glassy ash. Coal mines, oil and gas developers, and county road departments use clinker for surfacing roads and construction pads where better quality sand and gravel is not available.

    Purpose: This shapefile shows distribution of clinker outcrops in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin.  Clinker is rock altered by natural burning of coal beds.

  Time_Period_of_Content:

    Time_Period_Information:

      Single_Date/Time:

        Calendar_Date: 11/16/2011

        Time_of_Day: 00:00

  Status:

    Progress: Complete

    Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned

  Spatial_Domain:

    Bounding_Coordinates:

      West_Bounding_Coordinate: 107 deg 30 min

      East_Bounding_Coordinate: 104 deg 30 min

      North_Bounding_Coordinate: 46 deg 30 min

      South_Bounding_Coordinate: 45 deg 00 min

  Keywords:

    Theme:

      Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: geology

      Theme_Keyword: clinker

    Place:

      Place_Keyword: Powder River Basin

  Access_Constraints: none

  Use_Constraints: limited to quality of data; some data digitized at 1:100,000 scale, other at 1:24000.

  Point_of_Contact:

    Contact_Information:

      Contact_Person_Primary:

        Contact_Person: Ed Heffern

        Contact_Organization: BLM Wyoming State Office

      Contact_Position: Geologist

      Contact_Address:

        Address_Type: Home

        Address: 813 Evergreen St.

        City: Cheyenne

        State_or_Province: WY

        Postal_Code: 82009

        Country: USA

      Contact_Voice_Telephone: 307-775-6259 wk    307-631-9894 cell

      Contact_Instructions:

        work e-mail: eheffern@blm.gov

        home e-mail: edheffern@bresnan.net

  Security_Information:

    Security_Classification: Unclassified

  Native_Data_Set_Environment: Microsoft Windows XP Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 3; ESRI ArcCatalog 9.2.5.1450

Data_Quality_Information:

  Positional_Accuracy:

    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:

      Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Clinker mapped at 1:100,000 scale may be somewhat generalized.  Clinker mapped at 1;24000 scale is more accurate.

  Lineage:

    Process_Step:

      Process_Description: Dataset copied.

      Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: C:\tmp\clinkercoverages\montanaclinker

      Process_Date: 20091202

      Process_Time: 15090500

    Process_Step:

      Process_Description: Dataset copied.

      Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation:

      Process_Date: 20091207

      Process_Time: 11281800

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:

  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Vector

  Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:

Spatial_Reference_Information:

  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:

    Planar:

      Planar_Coordinate_Information:

        Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: coordinate pair

        Coordinate_Representation:

          Abscissa_Resolution: 0.000000

          Ordinate_Resolution: 0.000000

        Planar_Distance_Units: meters

    Geodetic_Model:

      Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_Clarke_1866

      Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866

      Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000

      Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:

  Detailed_Description:

    Entity_Type:

      Entity_Type_Label: WyomingPRBnov2011

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: FID

      Attribute_Definition: Internal feature number.

      Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI

      Attribute_Domain_Values:

        Unrepresentable_Domain: Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: Shape

      Attribute_Definition: Feature geometry.

      Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI

      Attribute_Domain_Values:

        Unrepresentable_Domain: Coordinates defining the features.

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: OBJECTID

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: G_Unit

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: G_Sym

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: Descriptio

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: G_Name

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: Shape_Leng

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: Shape_Area

      Attribute_Definition: Area of feature in internal units squared.

      Attribute_Definition_Source: ESRI

      Attribute_Domain_Values:

        Unrepresentable_Domain: Positive real numbers that are automatically generated.

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: AREA

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: PERIMETER

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: Acres

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: Hectares

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: CLNKA_

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: CLNKA_ID

    Attribute:

      Attribute_Label: TYPE

Distribution_Information:

  Resource_Description: Downloadable Data

  Standard_Order_Process:

    Digital_Form:

      Digital_Transfer_Information:

        Transfer_Size: 0.000

Metadata_Reference_Information:

  Metadata_Date: 20091202

  Metadata_Contact:

    Contact_Information:

      Contact_Person_Primary:

        Contact_Person: Ed Heffern

        Contact_Organization: BLM Wyoming State Office, Branch of Solid Minerals

      Contact_Position: Geologist

      Contact_Address:

        Address_Type: mailing and physical address

        Address: 5353 Yellowstone Road

        City: Cheyenne

        State_or_Province: WY

        Postal_Code: 82009

        Country: USA

      Contact_Voice_Telephone: 307-775-6259

      Contact_Voice_Telephone: 307-631-9894

      Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: eheffern@blm.gov

      Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: edheffern@bresnan.net

  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata

  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998

  Metadata_Time_Convention: local time