U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIORBUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT
 
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20240
http://www.blm.gov/

February 17, 2009

In Reply Refer To:
4750 (260) P
 
EMS TRANSMISSION 02/19/2009
Instruction Memorandum No. 2009-074
Expires: 09/30/2010

To:                   AFO's (except Alaska)

From:               Assistant Director, Renewable Resources and Planning

Subject:            Wild Horse and Burro Vaccinations in Short-term Holding Facilities

Program Area:  Wild Horse and Burro Program

Purpose: The purpose of this policy is to provide direction for the de-worming and vaccination of wild horses and burros located at short-term holding facilities. De-worming and vaccination for common horse diseases minimizes disease incidence and promotes good animal health. 

Policy/Action: All wild horses and burros removed from public lands, born at short-term holding facilities and born at long-term holding facilities and relocated to short-term holding facilities shall be de-wormed and vaccinated for Eastern and Western encephalomyelitis, tetanus, rhinopneumonitis, influenza, strangles, West Nile virus and rabies. Tables 1 and 2 identify the required schedules for de-worming and vaccination that are based on standards recommended by the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP).

Table 1: De-worming Schedule for Wild Horses and Burros at Short-Term Holding Facilities

Treatment
Adult Older Than 1 Year
Foals (Born in the Current Foaling Year)
De-Worming
Primary Dose
Every 180 days
Primary Dose
Every 180 days or more frequently as facility conditions dictate.
 
Table 2: Vaccination Schedule for Wild Horses and Burros at Short-Term Holding Facilities
 
Vaccine
Adult Older Than 1 Year
Foals (Born in the Current Foaling Year)
Primary and Initial Booster
Maintenance Booster
Primary and Initial Booster
Second Foal Booster
Influenza
Primary + 1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
Every 180 days
Primary +1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
2nd Booster 30-90 days after 1st.
After that every 180 days.
Rhinopneumonitis
Primary + 1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
Every 180 days
Primary +1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
2nd Booster 30-90 days after 1st.
After that every 180 days.
Strangles
Primary + 1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
Every 180 days
Primary +1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
2nd Booster 30-90 days after 1st.
After that every 180 days.
Eastern & Western
Encephalomyelitis
Primary + 1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
Once a year
Primary +1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
2nd Booster 30-90 days after 1st.
After that once a year.
Tetanus
Primary + 1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
Once a year
Primary +1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
2nd Booster 30-90 days after 1st.
After that once a year.
Rabies*
Primary
Once a year
Primary +1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
2nd Booster 30-90 days after 1st.
After that once a year.
West Nile Virus*
Primary + 1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
Once a year
Primary +1 Booster (3-4 weeks apart)
2nd Booster 30-90 days after 1st.
After that once a year.
*Animals destined for long-term holding facilities shall not be given rabies or West Nile vaccinations if operationally practical within facility

A national contract for the de-wormers and vaccines listed above will continue to be administered by the Division of Wild Horse and Burro at Washington Office (WO-260). Multiple field “ordering officials” will order and receive shipments for their respective short-term holding facilities. The WO-260 will receive all invoices and execute requisitions for payments to the contractor.  Distribution of the vaccine and de-wormer will be directly to the ordering facilities.

Time frame:  This policy is effective upon issuance.

Budget Impact:  Implementation of these actions and changes from the previous 2002 vaccination protocols will result in annual cost increase of about $25,000 if 8,000 to 10,000 animals are gathered.  Depending on each wild horse and burro facility’s veterinary contract, some facilities may incur additional veterinarian expenses for administration of the vaccines and de-wormers purchased by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Background: The administration of vaccines to the wild horses and burros removed from public lands has been a long-standing practice within the Wild Horse and Burro program. Authority for vaccinating wild horses or burros is provided by the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, Section 3 (b) (2) (B); 43 CFR 4750.2-1; and BLM Manual Handbook 4750-1 Wild Horse and Burro Preparation. This policy is an update to previous preparation policy and implements several changes to previous protocols.
 
The previous vaccination program included a 90-day booster schedule for all animals for Rhino/Flu, Strangles and de-worming. Current policy will change that to 180 days, based on recommendations from the equine veterinary community. The most significant change is for foals born during a current foaling year. Whether foals are born in facilities or on the range, new information indicates that foals do not respond to vaccinations in the same manner as adults and require a second booster vaccination in order to achieve effective vaccine coverage.  

The main issue is that animals in our program vary several months in age but must be managed in large groups for the efficiency of our operations. The primary and first booster is in line with our historic vaccination schedule. The second booster provides facilities flexibility as to when it can be given so that the operational needs at a facility can be met. The reason for the second booster, 30-90 days after the first, is to “spread out” the ability of a foal to mount an immune response to the vaccine. Research has shown that foals on mares and recently weaned foals may have maternal antibodies that could interfere with a response to the vaccine. “Spreading out” the second booster vaccination allows the foal an opportunity to mount its own response, not influenced by maternal antibodies. 

Manual/Handbook Sections Affected: BLM Manual 4750-1 Wild Horse and Burro Preparation, Chapter III - Identification and Basic Health Care-(2) Vaccinations, will need to be modified to include rabies and West Nile virus vaccinations.

Coordination:  This policy was coordinated with an Animal Plant Health Inspection Service Veterinarian, reviewed by field staff in the Wild Horse and Burro program and coordinated with the National Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board.

Contact:  Any questions regarding this memorandum should be directed to Joe Stratton, Facility Manager, Elm Creek Wild Horse and Burro Corrals at (308) 856-4498.

 
 
Signed by:                                                                   Authenticated by:
Edwin L. Roberson                                                      Robert M. Williams
Assistant Director                                                        Division of IRM Governance,WO-560
Renewable Resources and Planning

 
Last updated: 10-20-2009