How to Use the Activity Guide
The lessons in this activity guide are not specifically designed to be a stand-alone curriculum in Oregon history or archaeology, although it is conceivable that such a curriculum could be built around them. Rather, they are a set of resources that provide the teacher with ample background material and student activities that can assist them in teaching about Oregon, its people, their history, and the role of the social and natural sciences that are tools to help learn about them.
There is no single way to use the materials in this activity guide. It has been designed to be as flexible as possible and yet provide as much background and as many modes of application as possible. The best use of the activity guide is the use that meets the teacher's needs. The best advice for the teacher is to be as creative as possible in applying the resources in the activity guide. It is hoped that they will be used, adapted, reviewed, modified, and massaged to meet the individual needs of each classroom teacher that has selected the activity guide as a resource.
There are some important things to note about the document itself:Common Curriculum Goals
The activities within the guide are aligned with Oregon's Common Curriculum Goals (CCGs) in science, social science, art, English, mathematics, health, and technology. In the first appendix, all of the CCGs and benchmarks addressed by the guide are listed by subject area. Each goal is followed by a listing of the lessons that address that goal. In the second appendix, the order is reversed. For each lesson in the activity guide, a list of all of the CCGs and benchmarks that are addressed is given. Thus, if a teacher wants to teach a lesson relating to a specific CCG in one of the subject areas, a quick check of the first appendix will guide their choices. If they want to teach a specific lesson in the activity guide and want to determine which CCGs are addressed, they simply refer to the second appendix.
For each lesson, the suggested duration of lesson, suggested group size, objectives, description of needed materials, vocabulary, and background information about the lesson's topic are provided. These suggestions are not meant to be restrictive. It is hoped that teachers will feel free to adapt any or all recommendations to their own needs.
The activity guide is divided into logical sections. Fundamental Concepts, Oregon's People, The Process of Archaeology, and Issues in Paleontology, Art, and Archaeology are natural groupings that lead the teacher into integrating the activity guide into existing curricula or designing new curricula as necessary.
The activity guide is not copyrighted. This allows for the easy, legal sharing of the materials in the activity guide with colleagues. It is hoped that this will encourage such sharing, thus assisting in the dissemination of the materials and activities in the activity guide.
The activity guide is made to be held in a loose-leaf binder. This indicates that the authors do not feel that the book is in a final form, nor does it need be. With the loose-leaf format, new materials can be added as they are available. Pages can be removed for easy duplication and replaced without disturbing the composition of the activity guide. Modifications and corrections to existing segments can be made without destroying the document. Outside resources can be inserted at appropriate locations to enhance the usefulness of the activity guide.
Special references and resources are identified in the appendices. Appendices 1 and 2 have already been discussed (see Common Curriculum Goals, above). The Resource Directory, Vocabulary, Rules for Brainstorming, and List of References are provided with the implied notation that these are not exhaustive lists. As teachers use the activity guide, it is anticipated that new resources will emerge, new visitor centers will be built, and new readings and speakers will be found. These all can be added to the activity guide.
A useful source for additional background is available through the Bureau of Land Management. Archaeology of Oregon by C. Melvin Aikens provides further information on archaeological techniques, descriptions of specific archaeological sites in Oregon, and a chapter placing Oregon cultures in perspective. The book is available through BLM offices statewide for a small fee.