Eugene Record of Decision and Resource Management Plan

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Eugene Record of Decision

Eugene District Resource Management Plan Table of Contents:

- Tables

- Maps

- Appendices

Special Status and SEIS Special Attention Species Habitat


Introduction - Special status species include plants and animals needing special attention due to local or regional rarity, or due to the limited availability of suitable habitat, as defined by law and policy. BLM policy also mandates the agency to manage for the conservation of species listed as sensitive by State governments consistent with Federal laws. Special status species include:

Those listed as threatened, endangered, proposed, or candidate under the Endangered Species Act.

Bureau Sensitive that includes species not currently being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act, but for which there are management concerns and significant identifiable threats.

Assessment species that receive special management consideration due to their population status.

SEIS special attention species are those covered under the SEIS/ROD Standards and Guidelines. Many of these species are also classified in other special status categories. Special attention species are noted with (SA) in Table 6.

Plants

Objectives

See Late-Successional Reserve, Riparian Reserve, Matrix, and Special Area objectives. Protect, manage, and conserve Federal listed and Proposed species and their habitats to achieve their recovery in compliance with the Endangered Species Act, approved recovery plans, and Bureau Special Status species policies.

Manage for the conservation of Federal Candidate and Bureau Sensitive species and their habitats so as not to contribute to the need to list and to recover the species.

Manage for the conservation of State listed species and their habitats to assist the State in achieving management objectives.

Protect and manage Assessment species where possible so as to not elevate their status to any higher level of concern.

Protect SEIS Special Attention Species so as not to elevate their status to any higher level of concern.

Study, maintain, or restore community structure, species composition, and ecological processes of special status plant and animal habitat.

Land Use Allocations

All land use allocations in this plan are designed in part to benefit special status plant species and SEIS Special Attention Species.

Management Actions/Direction for Late-Successional Reserves/Riparian Reserves

Special Status Plant Species

In most cases, management for special status plant species will be consistent with the management of other late seral and riparian species. If conflicts arise, management for special status plant species will take priority, but the planned actions will be designed, where possible, to reduce adverse impacts to other late seral species.

Actions needed to manage for special status plant species will generally be those management prescriptions designed to mimic or create historical conditions/processes that special status plant species evolved under and or were maintained by, such as the creation and maintenance of forest gaps, etc. Many of these activities will be consistent with the general objectives of creating and maintaining the structure, composition, and processes of late-successional forests within these physiographic provinces.

In areas where timber harvest is not the focus, such as in Late-Successional Reserves, emphasis will be to establish Botanical Reserve areas for special status plants, where all activities, such as adaptive management techniques, etc., will be consistent with the management of the species. The long-term objectives within these areas, however, should be to diminish the concept of "reserve" boundaries and will be to manage for the species within the context of the entire land use allocation and not in isolated islands.

SEIS Special Attention Species

Management of SEIS Special Attention Species will be consistent with the Survey and Manage Guidelines/All Land Use Allocations as described later in this section (see Appendix B for a list of species to be considered).

Late-Successional Reserves/Riparian Reserves are designed to serve a number of purposes, including habitat for populations of species that are associated with late-successional forests and to help ensure that these species will be conserved (SEIS/ROD, 1994), including SEIS Special Attention Species. Actions carried out within these areas will focus on benefiting or, where necessary, mitigating impacts to SEIS Special Attention Species and associated habitat identified under the appropriate Survey and Manage Guidelines (Appendix B), such as silvicultural practices implemented to advance the development of late-successional forests and to restore riparian forest communities, etc.

Management Actions/Direction for Matrix

Special Status Plant Species

Where plant populations are located within Matrix lands or other areas with a timber emphasis, objectives of management of special status plants will focus on protection, maintenance and enhancement of Botanical Reserve areas where these special status plant species are located. Maintenance of reserve integrity, adequate buffers to mitigate outside influences, and additional suitable habitat within reserve areas to maintain or recover species, will be primary objectives in these areas.

SEIS Special Attention Species

Management of SEIS Special Attention Species will be consistent with the Survey and Manage Guidelines/All Land Use Allocations as described later in this section.

Provisions such as 15 percent retention of late-successional forests in 5th field watersheds as well as 25 percent retention in Connectivity are designed to benefit SEIS Special Attention Species. Where analysis is done to determine which late-successional forests will be retained, SEIS Special Attention Species will be considered in this process.

Stand management within the Matrix will identify opportunities to provide such structural components as retention trees, course woody debris, etc., that will benefit SEIS Special Attention Species and associated habitat. Location of green trees, for example, along ridgelines are optimal locations for lichen dispersal (SEIS/ROD, 1994).

Management Actions/Direction for All Land Use Allocations

Special Status Plant Species

Management direction for current or future sites of special status plant species will be consistent with BLM Oregon State Office Manual 6840 and Instruction Memoranda No. OR-91-57 that directs the BLM to conserve threatened and endangered species (or species proposed for listing as threatened or endangered) and the ecosystems on which they depend, and to ensure that actions authorized on BLM administered lands do not contribute to the need to list any special status plant species.

All BLM administered lands will be managed for the conservation and protection of known and future sites for all Federal Candidate 1 and 2 plant species, State Listed and Bureau Sensitive plant species and their habitats. BLM Assessment species as well as the above categories will be actively managed where needed to prevent the increase in status listing. BLM Tracking plant species will be tracked to accurately assess the distribution and abundance of these species and need for any special management attention.

Approximately 1,044 acres of special status species plant habitat has currently been identified on the Eugene District. See Table 7, Sensitive Plant Protection by Species, for a list of those species currently identified within the District. It is expected that future sites for special status plant species will be identified as inventory continues.

The following actions will be implemented and are consistent with the protection, maintenance, and enhancement of special status plant species and associated habitat:

Review all proposed actions to determine whether or not special status plant species occupy or use the affected area or if habitat for such species is affected.

Modify, relocate, or abandon a proposed action to avoid contributing to the need to list Federal Candidate, State Listed species, Bureau Sensitive species, or their habitats.

Conduct field surveys prior to proposed actions according to protocols and other established procedures. This includes surveying during the proper season unless surveys are deemed unnecessary through watershed analysis, project planning, and environmental assessment. For example, field surveys may not be conducted in all cases depending on the number and timing of previous surveys conducted, whether previous surveys looked for all species that a new survey will, and the likelihood of potential habitat. The intensity of field surveys will also vary depending on the same factors.

Implement species specific inventories for special status plant species to determine the distribution, abundance and habitat requirements for these species; develop and implement inventory protocols for special status lichen, bryophyte, and fungi where not yet developed.

Consult/Conference with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for any proposed action that may affect Federal Listed or Proposed species or their critical or essential habitat. Based on the results of consultation/conference, modify, relocate, or abandon the proposed action. Request technical assistance from one of these agencies for any proposed action that may affect Federal Candidate species or their habitat.

Request technical assistance with USFWS on any action that may effect Federal Candidate or Bureau Sensitive species. Based on the results of technical assistance, modify, relocate, or abandon a proposed action to avoid contributing to the need to list Federal Candidate species or Bureau Sensitive species, or their critical or essential habitats.

Coordinate and cooperate with the State of Oregon to conserve State Listed species and State Candidates for listing.

Identify impacts of proposed actions to special status plant species as a whole and clearly describe impacts in environmental analyses. All special status plant species will be actively managed, including BLM Assessment species.

Coordinate with the USFWS and with other appropriate agencies and organizations and jointly endeavor to recover Federal Listed and Proposed plant species and their habitats; coordinate on the management of Federal Candidate and Bureau Sensitive plant species and their habitats.

Retain under Federal management, or other appropriate management organization, habitat essential for the survival or recovery of Listed and Proposed species. Retain habitat of Proposed, Federal Candidate, or Bureau Sensitive species where disposal will contribute to the need to list the species.

Where appropriate, pursue opportunities to increase the number of populations of special status plant species under BLM's management authority, through land acquisition and/or species reintroduction. Where appropriate opportunities exist, acquire land through exchange or purchase, in coordination with other responsible agencies, to contribute to recovery, reduce the need to list, or enhance special status species habitat. Where acquisition is not possible pursue conservation easements.

Develop and implement Conservation Strategies/Plans for all special status plant species that identify actions necessary for the protection, management and enhancement of the botanical resource, including recovery plans for Threatened and Endangered plant species; Develop and implement Botany 2000.

Coordinate with other agencies and groups in the management of species across landscapes. Coordination will be accomplished through Interagency Conservation Plans or similar agreements that identify actions to conserve single or multiple species and/or habitats. Such strategies could preclude the need for intensive inventories or modifications to some projects where the conservation plan provides adequate protection for the species and meets the intent of policy.

Where plans exist for species no longer on the special status plant species list, continue with the prescribed conservation actions if required to avoid relisting or future consideration for listing. In the case of interagency plans or agreements this determination will be mutually decided. Such plans may be modified as needed based on adequacy of existing range-wide conditions and conservation management.

Develop a Public Outreach Program for botanical resources and pursue opportunities for public education about conservation of species; coordinate with U. S. Forest Service (USFS) in implementing Celebrating Wildflowers Program.

Identify and maintain adequate Botanical Reserves for the protection, maintenance and enhancement of special status plant resources. Implement only those activities within the botanical reserve areas that will be consistent with the conservation and management of these species.

Conservation and management measures for special status plant species will include, but will not be limited to, the following:

  • Implement compliance, defensibility, ecological, and management treatment monitoring where necessary to track, manage for, and maintain viable special status plant populations.

  • Implement silvicultural treatments through adaptive management to maintain or enhance special status plant populations.

  • Implement prescribed burning where needed and where possible to maintain or enhance special status plant species habitat.

  • Establish a data management program for tracking special status plant species distribution, abundance, and condition, using GIS and other relational and nonrelational databases; coordinate with other agencies in the development of these to assure consistency and to provide a mechanism for information sharing.

  • Integrate special status plant species into watershed analysis to determine historical, existing, and potential habitat; identify opportunities for current and future management of special status plants, including protection, maintenance, and enhancement of populations.

  • Collect seed/fruit for cryogenic seed storage for all special status plant species for long-term protection of the species, guarding against catastrophic events.

  • Grazing by domesticated species will not be permitted within Botanical Reserve Areas unless identified as a viable tool in managing for a special status plant species. Emphasis, however, will first be given to utilizing other means that duplicate natural processes for maintaining or enhancing plant populations and habitat, such as prescribed fire, etc.

  • Herbicide use will not be permitted within Botanical Reserve Areas, unless identified as a viable tool in managing for a special status plant species. Emphasis, however, will first be given to other means that utilize nonchemical methods for maintaining or enhancing plant populations and habitat, such as manual control, etc.

  • Prohibit salvage and other timber management activities within Botanical Reserve Areas unless otherwise prescribed for the management of the special status plant species.

  • Prohibit the collection of Special Forest Products within Botanical Reserve Areas.

  • Implement public access restrictions to protect special status species plant populations, including gate installation and road decommissioning.

  • Implement dust abatement restrictions, where necessary, during critical pollination times.

  • Implement road maintenance restrictions for plant species found along roads where access will not be restricted and where maintenance for public safety is ongoing, including restrictions on mowing and brushing (seasonal restrictions); restrictions on ditching and blading; herbicide use will be prohibited.

  • Implement noxious or exotic weed control where these species threaten special status plant populations; emphasis will be on implementing nonchemical treatments such as manual control.

  • Where populations are adjacent to private lands, work with adjacent landowners in identifying any activities occurring on private lands that could affect BLM populations and, where possible, seek through cooperative agreements with private landowners to mitigate these actions.

  • Pursue negotiations with willing private parties involved in existing reciprocal right-of way agreements to protect special status plant species by removing public lands with populations of such plants from existing permits or by adding language to the agreements. Provide language protecting these plant resources in new reciprocal agreements.

  • Identify and fill gaps in information and research that are needed for adequately managing special status plant species resource.

  • Protect and manage for the variety of special habitat features on the District; such habitats have been defined as important for a variety of special status plant species.

  • Leasable and locatable minerals will be managed consistent with the proposed management outlined in Appendix G and Appendix H. Salable minerals will be managed consistent with Appendix I.

Management Actions/Direction for All Land Use Allocations

SEIS Special Attention Species

This incorporates the "Survey and Manage" and "Protection Buffer" species and standards and guidelines from the SEIS/ROD.

Some species covered under SEIS Special Attention species will also be covered under the objectives and guidelines for special status plant species where these species are identified for management under BLM's Special Status Species Policy.

Survey and Manage - Implement the survey and manage provision of the SEIS/ROD within the range of SEIS Special Attention species and the particular habitats that they are known to occupy. Appendix B shows which species are covered by this provision, and which of the following 4 categories and management actions/direction are to be applied to each:

1. Manage known sites (highest priority).
  All species located on the Eugene District that are covered under this provision will be managed in the following manner:
  a. Acquire and manage information on these sites, make it available to all project planners, and use it to design or modify activities.
  b. Protect known sites. For some species, apply specific management treatments such as prescribed fire.
  c. For rare and endemic fungus species, temporarily withdraw 160 acres around known sites from ground-disturbing activities until the sites can be thoroughly surveyed and site-specific measures prescribed.
  Species that have been identified to date as currently or historically occurring within the District that will be covered under these guidelines include: Allotropa virgata (Candy stick), Aster vialis (Wayside aster), Cypripedium montanum (Mountain lady's slipper), Choiromyces venosus (Rare Truffle), Buxbaumia viridis (moss), Buxbaumia piperi (moss), and the following lichens: Pannaria rubiginosa, Erioderma sorediatum, Leptogium brebissonii, Usnea hesperina, and Hypogymnia oceanica. Management of Aster vialis (wayside aster) will also be covered under special status plant species objectives. Other species may be identified as inventories are implemented.
2. Survey prior to ground-disturbing activities and manage sites.
  a. Continue existing efforts to survey and manage rare and sensitive species habitat.
  b. For species without survey protocols, start immediately to design protocols and implement surveys.
  c. For the other species listed in Appendix B begin development of survey protocols promptly and proceed with surveys as soon as possible. These surveys will be completed prior to ground-disturbing activities that will be implemented in Fiscal Year 1999 or later. Work to establish habitat requirements and survey protocols may be prioritized relative to the estimated threats to the species as reflected in the SEIS.
  d. Conduct surveys at a scale most appropriate to the species.
  e. Develop management actions/direction to manage habitat for the species on sites where they are located.
  f. Incorporate survey protocols and proposed site management in interagency conservation strategies developed as part of ongoing planning efforts coordinated by the Regional Ecosystem Office.
3. Conduct extensive surveys and manage sites.
  a. Conduct extensive surveys for the species to find high-priority sites for species management. Specific surveys prior to ground-disturbing activities are not a requirement.
  b. Conduct surveys according to a schedule that is most efficient and identify sites for protection at that time.
  c. Design these surveys for efficiency and develop standardized protocols.
  d. Begin these surveys by 1996.
4. Conduct general regional surveys.
  a. Survey to acquire additional information and to determine necessary levels of protection for fungi species that were not classed as rare and endemic, bryophytes, and lichens.
  b. Initiate these surveys no later than Fiscal Year 1996 and complete them within 10 years.

Protection Buffers - Provide protection buffers for specific rare and locally endemic species and SEIS special attention species in the upland forest matrix and all habitats identified in the SEIS/ROD. A list of these species and related management actions/direction are presented in Appendix B and the section on Special Status and SEIS Special Attention Species. These species are likely to be assured viability if they occur within reserves. However, there might be occupied locations outside reserves that will be important to protect as well.

Apply the following management actions/direction:

  1. Develop survey protocols that will ensure a high likelihood of locating sites occupied by these species.

  2. Following development of survey protocols and prior to ground-disturbing activities, conduct surveys within the known or suspected ranges of the species and within the habitat types or vegetation communities occupied by the species. See the previous Survey and Manage section for an implementation schedule.

  3. Maintain a spatially explicit database of all known sites.

  4. Develop species or area management plans to be implemented under the guidance of regional botany programs.

  5. Manage known habitat of Special Attention Species requiring protection buffers as follows and consistent with the SEIS/ROD for those species.

  6. For newly discovered habitat of other Special Attention Species requiring protection buffers, apply the management actions/direction in the SEIS/ROD.

Nonvascular plants currently known to occur on the Eugene District covered under the protection buffer provision:

  Buxbaumia viridis (Moss)
  Maintain decay class 3, 4, and 5 logs and greater than 70 percent closed-canopy forest habitat for shade. Timber harvest including, shelterwood and thinning prescriptions will not be permitted. Implement survey and manage components 1 and 3 of SEIS/ROD for management of this species.

Listed and Proposed
Endangered and Threatened
Plant Species

General - Implement the land use allocations and management actions/direction of this Proposed Resource Management Plan that are designed to enhance and maintain habitat for all endangered and threatened species in all Land Use Allocations.

Bradshaw's lomatium (Lomatium bradshawii) (Federal endangered)

BLM will comply with implementing those actions identified in the 1993 Recovery Plan for Lomatium bradshawii (Bradshaw's lomatium). Specific management actions identified for BLM to implement will include:

Conserving Genetic Material:

  • Determine genetic variability of populations.

  • Determine impact of seed collection on populations.

  • Collect seeds and store them at established seed bank facility.

Establishing management areas:

  • Identify potential habitat in southeastern recovery area for Lomatium.

  • Search potential habitat in southeastern recovery area.

  • Assist USFWS in selecting recovery areas.

  • Delineate boundaries of the management areas.

  • Secure the habitat supporting each population.

Enhancing populations:

  • Examine secondary succession or potential habitat modification at each population.

  • Examine effects of competition within populations.

  • Examine effects of tree roots on hardpan maintenance on Lomatium habitat.

  • Determine impact of fungal diseases known to occur on Lomatium.

  • Determine insects impacts on Lomatium plants.

  • Determine human impacts on populations.

  • Determine herbicide impacts where appropriate.

  • Determine grazing impacts (geese, sheep and cattle) where appropriate.

  • Determine impacts of exotic plants on populations.

  • Determine hydrologic requirements of Lomatium.

  • Examine inbreeding depression.

  • Examine pollinator availability.

  • Examine seed viability of Lomatium.

  • Examine seed predators and parasites.

  • Determine microhabitat for germination and seedling establishment.

  • Write site-specific management plan for each management area.

  • Implement site-specific management plans.

Monitoring populations:

  • Establish permanent monitoring plots, photo points, and sampling techniques at Lomatium populations.

  • Conduct periodic monitoring.

  • Conduct demographic studies.

Management and implementation of this Recovery Plan will be in conjunction with other parties identified within the Recovery Plan, providing a consistent, integrated approach towards recovery of this species.

Animals

Objectives

See Late-Successional Reserve, Riparian Reserve, Matrix, and Special Area objectives.

Protect, manage, and conserve Federal listed and proposed species and their habitats to achieve their recovery in compliance with the Endangered Species Act, approved recovery plans, and Bureau special status species policies.

Manage for the conservation of Federal Candidate and Bureau Sensitive species and their habitats so as not to contribute to the need to list and to recover the species.

Coordinate and cooperate with the State of Oregon to conserve State Listed species. Manage for the conservation of State listed species and their habitats to assist the State in achieving management objectives.

Protect and manage assessment species so as to not elevate their status to any higher level of concern.

Protect SEIS special attention species so as to not elevate their status to any higher level of concern.

Maintain or restore community structure, species composition, and ecological processes of special status plant and animal habitat.

Land Use Allocations

In all land use activities and under all land allocations avoid, protect or mitigate for special status species populations and habitat so as to not contribute to the need to list the nonfederal listed species and to promote the recovery of Federal listed species.

The objectives for special status species will apply to all land use allocations. Acres of special status species habitat designated on the District will change throughout the life of the plan as inventories are conducted and the status of species change.

Listed and Proposed Federal Threatened and Endangered Species, Federal Candidate, State Listed, Bureau Sensitive and Assessment species will be managed across all land use allocations, based on the presence of occupied and potential habitat. Management actions or objectives that are specific to a special status category are listed under that subheading.

The management within each land use allocation will be consistent with policy and law and the specific guidance in the SEIS/ROD, and RMP. Decisions of how, where, how much, and when to manage for special status species (and priority wildlife covered in the Wildlife Habitat section) will be determined through watershed analysis, consistent with law, policy, and land use allocations.

Management Actions/Direction for Late-Successional Reserves/Riparian Reserves

Manage for the recovery of special status species consistent with management of late seral species when possible. If conflicts arise, management for the special status species should take priority but the planned actions should be designed to reduce adverse impacts to late seral species management to the degree possible.

Management emphasis in the Late-Successional Reserves and Riparian Reserves will be for those species whose preferred habitat is late seral stages, mature, and old growth forests. This allocation will retain mature and old growth habitat in these stands until younger forests develop the structural and functional components needed by species such as the spotted owl and marbled murrelet. The silvicultural prescriptions for younger aged stands that occur in the Late-Successional Reserve boundary are designed to develop more diverse structural characteristics and habitat components in a shorter time period than will occur under unmanaged conditions. Intermediate treatments in younger seral stages will improve habitat for special status species or priority wildlife associated with younger forest if the treatments are compatible with future desired conditions for the Late-Successional Reserves.

Protect and enhance Riparian Management Areas (including wetlands) to comply with the Aquatic Conservation Strategy so as to not adversely affect special status species dependent on these habitats. Specific actions will be identified through the watershed analysis process.

Management Actions/Direction for Matrix-Connectivity/Matrix-General Forest Management

Within the Matrix-Connectivity land use allocation, some harvest will occur in older forest stands. The 25 percent retention of the "best" habitat within the connectivity blocks and the retention of 12-18 green trees across the remaining block will help meet the needs of highly mobile species such as migratory birds and large mammals and will help provide refugia for the relatively nonmobile species such as invertebrates and small mammals. Within the Matrix-General Forest land use allocation the 15 percent late successional retention of older forest within each fifth-field watershed (SEIS C-44) and the 6-8 green tree retention will be designed through watershed analysis to help meet the maintenance and recovery needs of special status species and other priority wildlife. Ecological function will be maintained as consistent with objectives of each of these land use allocations.

Management Actions/Direction for All Land Use Allocations

Determine the occurrence and distribution of all special status and SEIS special attention species on BLM administered lands and evaluate the significance of these lands for the conservation of these species.

The primary mechanism for the conservation of special status species will be through the application of ecosystem management principles to develop complex forest habitats under a variety of silvicultural prescriptions. These silvicultural prescriptions are designed to create a variety of habitat conditions, including retention of large down woody material, snags and decadent green trees, the development of multilayered forest canopies, the retention or enhancement of conifer and hardwood species of special importance to the ecology of special status species, the protection and restoration of special habitats, and the protection and enhancement of riparian and other wetland systems (see Habitat Enhancement, Wildlife, Chapter 2, PRMP/FEIS).

Screen all proposed actions, including those permitted by BLM through rights-of-way or other agreements, to determine if special status/SEIS special attention species or their habitat may be affected. Mitigate actions to reduce or eliminate impacts. Where mitigation cannot eliminate adverse effects, follow the formal or informal consultation requirements for each status group (See Federal Endangered and Threatened, Federal Candidate/State Listed species/Bureau Sensitive, etc. below.) Mitigation may include, but is not limited to the following:

Reroute/close/decommission roads or restrict access; reclaim habitat through native seeding or natural recovery; relocate parts or all of the project area; implement seasonal or other timing restrictions; implement silvicultural practices to develop desired components of wildlife habitat; develop timber harvest prescriptions and timetables to develop a desirable mix of seral stages for wildlife; select and space reserve trees in the silvicultural system to meet special needs; treat reserved trees to create snags or special structural conditions; modify buffer widths or leave buffers where they will not normally be required; install/erect artificial nest structures; implement measures to minimize or correct stream siltation, substrate, or water quality; use prescribed fire or manual vegetative treatment to create desired conditions; implement special yarding stipulations and corridor placement to avoid crucial habitat or important components; implement appropriate Best Management Practices; fence or screen sensitive areas; control exotic plant or animal species; work with ODFW to direct or curtail hunting and trapping in selected areas; use devices to reduce wildlife conflicts or mortality in campgrounds, pumpchances, roadways etc; implement silviculture prescriptions within thinnings to create desired future conditions; and retain priority forage species in road maintenance or vegetation/silvicultural treatment prescriptions.

Take actions to promote the evaluation, conservation and recovery of all native species (BLM Manual 6500.1).

Retain under Federal management, or other appropriate management organization, habitat essential for the survival or recovery of listed and proposed species. Retain habitat of proposed, Candidate, or Bureau Sensitive species where land transfer will contribute to the need to list the species. Where appropriate opportunities exist, acquire land to contribute to recovery, reduce the need to list, or enhance special status species habitat. Pursue opportunities to increase the number or extent of special status species populations and habitat through land acquisition and/or species reintroduction.

Coordinate with appropriate agencies and landowners to develop conservation plans or agreements to conserve single species, groups of species, communities, or habitats. Such strategies could provide adequate protection for the species or habitat(s) of concern without the need for intensive survey or site-by-site project modification.

Pursue opportunities for public education about conservation of species and habitat.

Record field observations of special status species on or near BLM lands. Analyze impacts of proposed actions and monitor mitigation measures that were imposed as a means to increase the knowledge base about the distribution and ecology of these species. Data on the occurrence of special status species and their habitat will be shared across the range of the species with other agencies and project planners.

Management Actions/Direction Specific to Special Status Species Categories (All Land Use Allocations)

General objectives and management actions pertaining to special status species and their habitats are presented below and are followed by management actions that are specific to particular species or habitats.

Listed and Proposed
Threatened and Endangered
Animal Species

Evaluate ongoing management actions to ensure that conservation measures for threatened and endangered species are being met. Ensure that all management actions are consistent with recovery plan objectives.

Proposed project areas will be surveyed for occupancy by species listed as Federally threatened or endangered and species proposed for Federal listing, using the best scientific protocol, where habitat conditions indicate potential occupancy by these species. Field surveys may not be conducted in all cases depending on the number and timing of previous surveys conducted in the proposed action area and the amount or likelihood of potential habitat present. The intensity of field surveys will also vary depending on the same factors.

If a project may adversely affect any listed or proposed Federal threatened or endangered species or its critical habitat, effort will be made to modify, relocate, or abandon the project in order to obtain a "no effect" determination. In any case where BLM determines that such a project cannot be altered to eliminate the potential adverse effect, and abandonment of the project is not considered appropriate, consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/National Marine Fisheries Service will be initiated. The terms and conditions of the Biological Opinion will be followed.

Manage proposed endangered, threatened species and proposed critical habitat with the same level of protection provided for listed species and designated Critical Habitat.

Columbian white-tailed deer (Federal endangered species)

All actions will be consistent with the objectives in the Columbian White-tailed Deer Recovery Plan (USFWS 1983).

The District will initiate consultations with the USFWS and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife to assess the potential for reestablishing one or more experimental populations within the District in accordance with the intent to reintroduce Columbian white-tailed deer to areas having suitable habitat within their historical home range.

American peregrine falcon (Federal endangered species)

Comply with the Peregrine Falcon Recovery Plan including the American Peregrine Falcon Rocky Mountain/Southwest Population Recovery Plan (USFWS 1984), Pacific Coast Recovery Plan for the American Peregrine Falcon (USFWS, 1982), the Technical Draft Addendum to the Pacific and Rocky Mountain/Southwest (Peregrine Falcon) Recovery Plans (USFWS, 1991), and existing site-specific habitat management plans.

The District will coordinate with the USFWS and other land managers of lands covered by the Peregrine Recovery Plan to develop and implement specific management strategies for peregrine recovery. Together with these agencies/groups assess the importance of cliff and roosting sites on District lands in meeting peregrine recovery goals and identify which areas to protect or enhance. Coordinate with ODFW and USFWS to determine if reported historical aeries are still suitable for nesting. Following the establishment of specific peregrine recovery areas on the District (if any), manage these sites to encourage peregrine occupancy and recovery.

If District sites qualify as potential recovery habitat, cliffs will be managed to provide for future population expansion. The cliffs themselves will be protected and enhanced if necessary. Protective actions may include restrictions on access, development, or other land uses. These potential nest sites will be retained under BLM administration.

Northern spotted owl (Federal threatened species)

Implement pertinent actions from the Final Draft Northern Spotted Owl Recovery Plan (USFWS 1992) to the extent that those actions are still valid. Emphasize owl recovery in Late-Successional Reserves. Continue to participate in regional research, monitoring, and management strategies for the northern spotted owl.

In the Matrix retain 100 acres of the best northern spotted owl habitat as close as possible to a nest site or owl activity center for all known (as of January 1, 1994) spotted owl activity centers on BLM land. These cores will be managed as Late-Successional Reserves throughout the life of the plan even if unoccupied. Consult with USFWS regarding all "may effect" determinations of owl pair, nest and single sites located after January 1, 1994.

General guidelines to avoid a "may effect" determination for northern spotted owls include:

A restriction of tree falling within one-quarter mile of all active northern spotted owl nest sites from approximately March 1 to September 30 to avoid disturbance and harm (incidental take) to young owls.

Human activities that could disturb owl nesting, especially use of large power equipment and explosives, will be prohibited within one-quarter mile of all active spotted owl nest sites from approximately March 1 to September 30.

Marbled murrelet (Federal threatened species)

Survey potential marbled murrelet habitat prior to any human disturbance. Follow USFWS protocol.

Where behavior indicates occupation (e.g., active nest, fecal ring, or eggshell fragments; and birds flying below, through, into, or out of the forest canopy within or adjacent to a stand), protect a 0.5 mile radius of all contiguous existing and recruitment habitat for marbled murrelets (i.e., stands that are capable of becoming marbled murrelet habitat within 25 years). These areas will be managed as Late-Successional Reserves. Until completion of the Marbled Murrelet Recovery Plan, neither conduct nor allow harvest of timber within occupied marbled murrelet habitat if a "may effect" determination will result.

During silvicultural treatments of nonhabitat within the 0.5-mile circle, protect or enhance suitable or replacement habitat.

Reduce adverse impacts to nesting murrelets during the critical nesting period (April 15 - September 30) through seasonal restrictions of disturbing activities.

Upon completion of the recovery plan for marbled murrelets, incorporate conservation and management strategies in District plans and actions. Amend or revise management actions as appropriate.

Bald eagle (Federal threatened species)

Comply with the Pacific Bald Eagle Recovery and Implementation Plans and existing, site-specific habitat management plans. Cooperate with other landowners to help meet bald eagle objectives.

Write site plans for each Bald Eagle Habitat Area (BEHA) complex in accordance with general recovery plan guidance and manage these areas as essential habitat for bald eagle recovery. Silvicultural prescriptions will be developed and implemented to promote the development of habitat conditions favorable to the species in and adjacent to these stands. The District proposes not to designate these stands as ACECs (Areas of Critical Environmental Concern) as suggested in the recovery plan.

The Eugene District chooses to maintain flexibility for the management of BEHAs through proactive site-specific management actions designed to meet the needs of bald eagles and will manage these sites as critical bald eagle habitat, while recognizing the possibility of the eagles establishing nest and roost sites in stands other than those nominated for ACEC status. Develop site plans to cover nests, established perch sites, and winter roosts for occupied eagle habitat not in BEHAs. Follow USFWS Region 1 buffer zones as minimal guidance until site plans are completed (Recovery Objective 1.3331). Core areas will be designated fire fuel management areas to reduce the risk of loss during a wildfire. Fire control activities will be analyzed on a site-by-site basis to reduce disturbance to the site.

Manage the Coburg Hills Bald Eagle Complex consistent with recovery plan objectives. Address the following in a Habitat Management Plan:

Potential threats to the occupied bald eagle winter roost from public use of an existing road
 
Potential adverse impacts to the roost that may result from development on adjacent, intermingled lands in nonfederal ownership Identification of key foraging areas for the wintering bald eagle.

Through interagency and cooperative actions, identify alternative food sources in the event of a change in the livestock-oriented agriculture that maintains the eagles using this site.

Exclude logging, construction, habitat improvement, and low level BLM aircraft operations within 400 m (or 800 m line of site) of nests and roosts during critical nesting and wintering periods. Nesting activity generally occurs between January 1 and August 31. Key wintering periods are generally from November 15 through April 1.

Oregon chub (Federal endangered species)
Coho salmon
(under status review)
Steelhead trout
(under status review)
Cutthroat trout
(proposed--Federal endangered (Umpqua Basin)

The integrity of stream channels and ponds used by these fish and their associated riparian vegetation will be protected through implementation of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy. The District will continue to cooperate with Federal recovery and State management efforts for these species.

Federal Candidate,
State Listed Species,
Bureau Sensitive Species

Modify, relocate, or abandon potentially impacting proposed actions to avoid contributing to the need to list Federal Candidate species, State Listed species, Bureau Sensitive species, SEIS Special Attention species or their essential habitats. Coordinate with the USFWS, NMFS, and other appropriate agencies and organizations and jointly endeavor to recover Federal listed and proposed plant and animal species and their habitats and ecosystems.

Coordinate with appropriate agencies, landowners and managers in the region to assess the distribution, abundance, ecology and potential impacts of Candidate and Bureau Sensitive species and their habitat. Active management could include protection, acquisition, habitat enhancement, reintroduction, control of exotic species, and the development/implementation of interagency cooperative plans. Continue with prescribed conservation actions for species dropped from the special status list (such as Federal C3 species) if Federal land management actions were a factor in considering the species no longer eligible for listing. Conservation plans for delisted species may be modified as needed based on adequacy of existing rangewide conditions and conservation management.

Management emphasis will be to accumulate ecological information and distributional data to enhance our ability to protect and manage these species in the future.

Bureau Assessment
and
Tracking Species

Assessment species will be considered in all Environmental Analyses where impacts will be clearly identified for the population and the species as a whole. As species conservation dictates, active management for assessment species will be undertaken to assure survival of these species in Oregon. They will be included in all field inventory and clearance work. All new locations will be documented.

Bureau policy (Oregon/Washington Special Status Species Policy - Extended) provides guidance for Tracking Species. These species, while not considered special status species, are identified as species for which some management concerns are identified. These concerns primarily reflect the lack of substantial ecological and habitat information, and the fact that there are possible management impacts. The management emphasis for these species is to record observations of these species and review the scientific literature to better evaluate status and future planning options. For a complete list of Tracking Species (see Table 8).

Management Actions/Direction for SEIS Special Attention Species (All Land Use Allocations)

Survey and Manage - Implement the Survey and Manage Provision of the SEIS/ROD (pages C-4 through C-6) throughout any land allocation but direct the Provision to the range of the SEIS special attention species and the particular habitats that they are known to occupy. Appendix B shows the species covered by the 4 Survey and Manage categories. The standard and guideline contains 4 components. Priorities differ among them as noted.

1. Manage known sites (highest priority). All species located on the Eugene District that are covered under this provision will be managed in the following manner:
  a. Acquire and manage information on these sites, make it available to all project planners, and use it to design or modify activities.
  b. Protect known sites. For some species, apply specific management treatments such as prescribed fire.
2. Survey prior to ground-disturbing activities. Manage sites. (The red-tree vole is the only applicable wildlife species currently known to occur on the Eugene District under this Survey and Manage category).
  a. Continue efforts to survey and manage rare and sensitive species habitat where such habitat exists.
  b. For species without survey protocols, start immediately to design protocols and implement surveys.
  c. Survey within the known or suspected ranges of the red tree vole and the habitat types of vegetation communities associated with the species. These surveys will precede the design of all ground-disturbing activities that will be implemented in 1997 or later.
  d. For the other species listed in Appendix B, begin development of survey protocols promptly and proceed with surveys as soon as possible. These surveys will be completed prior to ground-disturbing activities that will be implemented in Fiscal Year 1999 or later. Work to establish habitat requirements and survey protocols may be prioritized relative to the estimated threats to the species as reflected in the SEIS.
  e. Conduct surveys at a scale most appropriate to the species.
  f. Develop management actions/direction to manage habitat for the species on sites where they are located.
  g. Incorporate survey protocols and proposed site management in interagency conservation strategies developed as part of ongoing planning efforts coordinated by the Regional Ecosystem Office.
3. Conduct extensive surveys. Manage sites. (There are no wildlife species thought to occur on the Eugene District under this Survey and Manage Category).
4. Conduct general regional surveys. (There are no wildlife species thought to occur on the Eugene District under this Survey and Manage Category).

Roosting Bats - Conduct surveys to determine the presence of roosting bats, including fringed myotis, silver-haired bats, long-eared myotis, long-legged myotis, and pallid bats. Surveys will be conducted according to protocol defined in the SEIS/ROD and in any subsequent revision to the protocol.

As an interim measure, allow no timber harvest within 250 feet of sites containing bats. Develop mitigation measures in project or activity plans involving these sites. The intent of these measures is to protect sites from destruction, vandalism, disturbance from road construction or blasting, or any other activity that could change cave or mine temperatures or drainage patterns. Consider the potential disturbance from road use and recreational activities.

When Townsend's big-eared bats are found on Federal land, notify the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Develop management prescriptions for these sites that include special consideration for potential impacts on this species.