Eugene Record of
Decision and Resource Management Plan
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Eugene Record of Decision
Eugene District Resource Management
Plan Table of Contents:
|Activity Plan - A
document that describes management objectives,
actions and projects to implement decisions of
the RMP or other planning documents. Usually
prepared for one or more resources in a specific
Adaptive Management Areas -
Landscape units designated for development and
testing of technical and social approaches to
achieving desired ecological, economic, and other
Administratively Withdrawn Areas - 1.7
million acres of Federal lands that have been
withdrawn from timber harvest to create
experimental areas, research areas, recreation
areas, or scenic areas. They also include areas
where regeneration is difficult and timber
productivity is low, plus areas of special
concern for individual species. Age Class
- One of the intervals into which the age range
of trees is divided for classification or use.
Airshed - A geographical area that
shares the same air mass due to topography,
meteorology, and climate.
Allowable Sale Quantity
(ASQ) - The gross amount of timber volume,
including salvage, that may be sold annually from
a specified area over a stated period of time in
accordance with the management plan. Formerly
referred to as "allowable cut."
Anadromous Fish - Fish that are born
and reared in freshwater, move to the ocean to
grow and mature, and return to freshwater to
reproduce. Salmon, steelhead, and shad are
Analysis of the Management Situation (AMS)
- A document that summarizes important
information about existing resource conditions,
uses and demands, as well as existing management
activities. It provides the baseline for
subsequent steps in the planning process, such as
the design of alternatives and affected
Analytical Watershed - For planning
purposes, a drainage basin subdivision of the
planning area used for analyzing cumulative
impacts on resources.
Animal Damage -Injuries inflicted upon
forest tree seed, seedlings, and young trees
through seed foraging, browsing, cutting,
rubbing, or trampling; usually by mammals and
Aquatic Ecosystem - Any body of water,
such as a stream, lake, or estuary, and all
organisms and nonliving components within it,
functioning as a natural system.
- Habitat that occurs in free water.
Site - A geographic locale that contains the
material remains of prehistoric and/or historic
Area Control Rotation - The harvest of
a forested area based upon harvesting a set
proportion of the total forest area annually.
Harvest at an annual even flow of cubic feet of
timber is not a consideration in this system.
This is in contrast to the generally more
accepted common method of harvesting the growth
in cubic feet at a sustainable constant rate by
the year or decade without regard to the number
of acres harvested or thinned (see Area Regulation).
Area of Critical Environmental Concern
(ACEC) - An area of BLM administered lands
where special management attention is needed to
protect and prevent irreparable damage to
important historic, cultural or scenic values,
fish and wildlife resources or other natural
systems or processes; or to protect life and
provide safety from natural hazards. (Also see Potential ACEC.)
Area of Critical Mineral Potential - An
area nominated by the public as having mineral
resources or potential important to the local,
regional, or national economy.
- A method of scheduling timber harvest based on
dividing the total acres by an assumed rotation.
Automated Resource Data (ARD) -
Computerized map data used for the management of
Available Forest Land - That portion of
the forested acres for which timber production is
planned and included within the acres
contributing to the Probable Sale
Quantity (PSQ). This includes both lands
allocated primarily to timber production and
lands on which timber production is a secondary
Back Country Byway - A road segment
designated as part of the National Scenic Byway
Basal Area - The area of the cross
section of a tree stem near its base, generally
at breast height, 4.5 feet above the ground and
inclusive of bark.
Baseline - The starting point for
Analysis of Environmental Consequences; may be
the conditions at a point in time (e.g., when
inventory data is collected) or may be the
average of a set of data collected over a
specified period of years.
Basin Programs - Sets of State
administrative rules that establish types and
amounts of water uses allowed in the State's
major river basins and form the basis for issuing
Beneficial Use - The reasonable use of
water for a purpose consistent with the laws and
best interest of the peoples of the State. Such
uses include, but are not limited to, the
following: instream, out of stream and ground
water uses, domestic, municipal, industrial water
supply, mining, irrigation, livestock watering,
fish and aquatic life, wildlife, fishing, water
contact recreation, aesthetics and scenic
attraction, hydropower, and commercial
Practices (BMP) - Methods, measures, or
practices designed to prevent or reduce water
pollution. Not limited to structural and
nonstructural controls, and procedures for
operations and maintenance. Usually, BMPs are
applied as a system of practices rather than a
Big Game - Large
mammals that are hunted, such as Roosevelt elk,
black-tailed deer and black bear.
Biological Corridor - A habitat band
linking areas reserved from substantial
Biological Diversity - The variety of
life and its processes, including a complexity of
species, communities, gene pools, and ecological
BLM Operating Area - Portions of the
Planning Area where BLM administered lands lie.
(see definition for planning area).
Biological Legacies - Components of the
forest stand (e.g., large trees, down logs, and
snags) reserved from harvest to maintain site
productivity and to provide structure and
ecological functions in subsequent forest stands.
Board Foot (BF) - A unit of solid wood,
one foot square and one inch thick.
Broadcast Burn - Allowing a prescribed
fire to burn over a designated area within well
defined boundaries for reduction of fuel hazard
or as a silvicultural treatment, or both.
Bureau Assessment Species - Plant and
animal species on List 2 of the Oregon Natural
Heritage Data Base, or those species on the
Oregon List of Sensitive Wildlife Species (OAR
635-100-040), which are identified in BLM
Instruction Memo No. OR-91-57, and are not
included as Federal Candidate, State Listed or
Bureau Sensitive species.
Bureau Sensitive Species - Plant or
animal species eligible for Federal Listed,
Federal Candidate, State Listed, or State
Candidate (plant) status, or on List 1 in the
Oregon Natural Heritage Data Base, or approved
for this category by the State Director.
Candidate Species - Those plants and
animals included in Federal Register
"Notices of Review" that are being
considered by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
for listing as threatened or endangered. There
are two categories that are of primary concern to
BLM. These are:
- Category 1. Taxa for which the FWS
has substantial information on hand to
support proposing the species for listing
as threatened or endangered. Listing
proposals are either being prepared or
have been delayed by higher priority
- Category 2. Taxa for which the FWS
has information to indicate that listing
is possibly appropriate. Additional
information is being collected.
|Casual Use -
Activities ordinarily resulting in negligible
disturbance of Federal lands and resources.
Excavator - A wildlife species that digs or
chips out cavities in wood to provide a nesting,
roosting, or foraging site.
Cavity Nesters - Wildlife species, most
frequently birds, that require cavities (holes)
in trees for nesting and reproduction.
Class I (air quality) Areas - Special
areas (i.e., National parks, certain wilderness
areas) protected for their air quality related
Characteristic Landscape - The
established landscape within an area being
viewed. This does not necessarily mean a
naturalistic character. It could refer to an
agricultural setting, an urban landscape, a
primarily natural environment, or a combination
of these types.
Clear Cut Harvest - A timber harvest
method in which all trees are removed in a single
entry from a designated area, with the exception
of wildlife trees or snags, to create an
Coastal Oregon Productivity Enhancement
Program (COPE) - A cooperative research and
education program to identify and evaluate
existing and new opportunities to enhance
long-term productivity and economic/social
benefits derived from the forest resources of
Commercial Forest Land - Land declared
suitable for producing timber crops and not
withdrawn from timber production for other
Commercial Thinning - The removal of
merchantable trees from an even-aged stand to
encourage growth of the remaining trees.
Commercial Tree Species - Conifer
species used to calculate the commercial forest
land PSQ. They are typically
utilized as saw timber and include species such
as Douglas-fir, hemlock, spruce, fir, pine and
cedar. (Also see Noncommercial Tree Species).
Commodity Resources - Goods or products
of economic use or value.
Community Stability - The capacity of a
community (incorporated town or county) to absorb
and cope with change without major hardship to
institutions or groups within the community.
Community Water System - See Public Water System.
Concern - A topic of management or
public interest that is not well enough defined
to become a planning issue, or does not involve
controversy or dispute over resource management
activities or land use allocations, or lend
itself to designating land use alternatives. A
concern may be addressed in analysis, background
documents, or procedures, or in a
Reserved Areas - Areas that require
Congressional enactment for their establishment,
such as national parks, wilderness, and wild and
Connectivity - A measure
of the extent to which conditions between
late-successional/old growth forest areas provide
habitat for breeding, feeding, dispersal, and
movement of late-successional/old growth
associated wildlife and fish species.
Consistency - Under the Federal Land
Policy and Management Act, the adherence of BLM
resource management plans to the terms,
conditions and decisions of officially approved
and adopted resource related plans, or in their
absence, with policies and programs of other
Federal agencies, State and local governments and
American Indian tribes, so long as the plans are
also consistent with the purposes, policies and
programs of Federal laws and regulations
applicable to BLM administered lands. Under the
Coastal Zone Management Act, the adherence to
approved State management programs to the maximum
extent practicable, of Federal agency activities
affecting the defined coastal zone.
Core Area - That area of habitat
essential in the breeding, nesting, and rearing
of young, up to the point of dispersal of the
Cover - Vegetation used by wildlife for
protection from predators, or to mitigate weather
conditions, or to reproduce. May also refer to
the protection of the soil and the shading
provided to herbs and forbs by vegetation.
Critical Habitat - Under the Endangered
Species Act, (1) the specific areas within the
geographic area occupied by a Federally listed
species on which are found physical and
biological features essential to the conservation
of the species, and that may require special
management considerations or protection; and (2)
specific areas outside the geographic area
occupied by a listed species when it is
determined that such areas are essential for the
conservation of the species.
Crucial Habitat - Habitat that is basic
to maintaining viable populations of fish or
wildlife during certain seasons of the year or
specific reproduction periods.
Cubic Foot - A unit of solid wood, one
foot square and one foot thick.
Cull - A tree or log that does not meet
Mean Annual Increment (CMAI) - The peak of
average yearly growth in volume of a forest stand
(total volume divided by age of stand).
Resource - Any definite location of past
human activity identifiable through field survey,
historical documentation, or oral evidence;
includes archaeological or architectural sites,
structures, or places, and places of traditional
cultural or religious importance to specified
groups whether or not represented by physical
remains. Cultural Site - Any location that
includes prehistoric and/or historic evidence of
human use or that has important sociocultural
Cumulative Effect - The impact that
results from identified actions when they are
added to other past, present, and reasonably
foreseeable future actions regardless of who
undertakes such other actions. Cumulative effects
can result from individually minor but
collectively significant actions taking place
over a period of time.
Debris Torrent - Rapid movement of a
large quantity of materials (wood and sediment)
down a stream channel during storms or floods.
This generally occurs in smaller streams and
results in scouring of streambed.
Density Management - Cutting of trees
for the primary purpose of widening their spacing
so that growth of remaining trees can be
accelerated. Density management harvest can also
be used to improve forest health, to open the
forest canopy, or to accelerate the attainment of
old growth characteristics, if maintenance or
restoration of biological diversity is the
Departure (from even flow) - A timber
sale level that deviates from sustainable sale
levels through a planned temporary increase or
decrease in the PSQ. Must be
economically and biologically justified.
Designated Area - An area identified in
the Oregon Smoke Management Plan as a principal
population center requiring protection under
State air quality laws or regulations.
Designated Conservation Area (DCA) - A
contiguous area of habitat to be managed and
conserved for spotted owls as described in the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Final Draft
Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl.
Developed Recreation Site - A site
developed with permanent facilities designed to
accommodate recreation use.
Diameter At Breast Height (dbh) - The
diameter of a tree 4.5 feet above the ground on
the uphill side of the tree.
Dispersed Recreation - Outdoor
recreation in which visitors are diffused over
relatively large areas. Where facilities or
developments are provided, they are primarily for
access and protection of the environment rather
than comfort or convenience of the user.
Designated Reserves (DDR) - Areas designated
for the protection of specific resources, flora
and fauna, and other values. These areas are not
included in other land use allocations nor in the
calculation of the PSQ.
Water Supply - Water used for human
Donation Land Claim - A tract of land
originally surveyed and patented out of Federal
ownership under authority of laws passed by
Congress between 1850 and 1853 granting lands to
early settlers of the Oregon Territory.
Economically Feasible - Having costs
and revenues with a present net value greater
Ecological Health - The condition of an
ecosystem in which processes and functions are
adequate to maintain diversity of biotic
communities commensurate with those initially
Ecosystem - An interacting natural
system including living organisms and the
nonliving environment. Ecosystems may vary in
size. For example, the community of
microorganisms in water; the lake that contains
the water; the watershed where the lake is
situated; and the mountain range where the
watershed is located.
Ecosystem Diversity - The variety of
species and ecological processes that occur in
different physical settings.
Ecosystem Management (EM) - The
management of lands and their resources to meet
objectives based on their whole ecosystem
function rather than on their character in
isolation. Management objectives blend long-term
needs of people and environmental values in such
a way that the lands will support diverse,
healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems.
(Source: IB OR 93-339 to all employees from the
Edge Effect - An ecologically
biological effect that occurs in the transition
zone where two plant communities or successional
stages meet and mix.
Effective Old Growth Habitat - Old
growth forest largely unmodified by external
environmental influences (for example, wind,
temperature, encroachment of nonresident species)
from nearby, younger forest stands. Also referred
to as interior habitat. For purposes of analysis,
assumed to be at least 400 feet from an edge with
an adjacent stand younger than age class 70.
- A river or river segment found, through
interdisciplinary team and, in some cases,
interagency review, to meet Wild and Scenic River
Act criteria of being free flowing and possessing
one or more Outstandingly
- Any species defined through the Endangered
Species Act as being in danger of extinction
throughout all or a significant portion of its
range and published in the Federal Register.
Environmental Assessment (EA) - A
systematic analysis of site-specific BLM
activities used to determine whether such
activities have a significant effect on the
quality of the human environment; and whether a
formal Environmental Impact Statement is
required; and to aid an agency's compliance with
NEPA when no EIS is necessary.
Environmental Impact - The positive or
negative effect of any action upon a given area
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) -
A formal document to be filed with the
Environmental Protection Agency that considers
significant environmental impacts expected from
implementation of a major Federal action.
Ephemeral Streams - Streams that
contain running water only sporadically, such as
during and following storm events.
Equivalent Clear Cut Acres - A
hydrological term that describes the runoff from
a watershed in terms of the number of acres of
recent clear cut, which would be required to
yield the same total amount of runoff. Following
a clear cut harvest, runoff increases to a peak
level, then gradually declines for 20 years.
Stands of trees 20 years and older are considered
to yield the same runoff as any fully forested
Established Stand - A reforestation
unit of suitable trees that are past the time
when considerable juvenile mortality occurs. The
unit is no longer in need of measures to ensure
survival but is evaluated for measures to enhance
Even-Aged Management - A silvicultural
system that creates forest stands, which are
primarily of a single age or limited range of
Existing Stand Condition (ESC) - An
artificial classification that groups forest
stands with similar management potential into
categories matched to tables expressing yield at
various stand ages under various combinations of
Extensive Recreation Management Areas
(ERMAs) - All BLM administered lands outside
Special Recreation Management Areas. These areas
may include developed and primitive recreation
sites with minimal facilities.
- The cover of branches and foliage formed
collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees and
other woody growth.
Forest Health - The
ability of forest ecosystems to remain
productive, resilient, and stable over time and
to withstand the effects of periodic natural or
human-caused stresses such as drought, insect
attack, disease, climatic changes, flood,
resource management practices and resource
Forest Land - Land that is now, or is
capable of becoming, at least l0 percent stocked
with forest trees and that has not been developed
for nontimber use.
Forest Succession - The orderly process
of change in a forest as one plant community or
stand condition is replaced by another, evolving
towards the climax type of vegetation.
Fragile Nonsuitable - A TPCC
classification indication forest land having
fragile conditions, which if harvested would
result in reduced future productivity; even if
special harvest or restrictive measures are
applied. These fragile conditions are related to
soils, geologic structure, topography, and ground
Full Log Suspension - Suspension of the
entire log above the ground during yarding
General Forest Management Area (GFMA) -
Forest land managed on a regeneration harvest
cycle of 60-110 years. A biological legacy of 6
to 8 green trees per acre would be retained to
assure forest health. Commercial thinning would
be applied where practicable and where research
indicates there would be gains in timber
Genetic Diversity - The variety within
populations of a species.
Green Tree Retention - A stand
management practice in which live trees as well
as snags and large down wood, are left as
biological legacies within harvest units to
provide habitat components over the next
- High Level - A regeneration
harvest designed to retain the highest
level of live trees possible while still
providing enough disturbance to allow
regeneration and growth of the naturally
occurring mixture of tree species. Such
harvest should allow for the regeneration
of intolerant and tolerant species.
Harvest design would also retain cover
and structural features necessary to
provide foraging and dispersal habitat
for mature and old growth dependent
- Low Level - A regeneration harvest
designed to retain only enough green
trees and other structural components
(snag, coarse woody debris, etc.) to
result in the development of stands,
which meet old growth definitions within
100-120 years after harvest entry,
considering overstory mortality.
- The number of different types of habitat within
a given area.
Habitat Fragmentation -
The breaking up of habitat into discrete islands
through modification or conversion of habitat by
Habitat Management Plan - See Activity Plan.
Hardwood Site - A forest site occupied
by hardwoods that is unsuitable for the
production of conifer species.
Hazardous Materials - Anything that
poses a substantive present or potential hazard
to human health or the environment when
improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed
of or otherwise managed.
Hiding Cover - Generally, any
vegetation used by wildlife for security or to
escape from danger; however, more specifically,
any vegetation capable of providing concealment
(e.g., hiding 90 percent of an animal) from human
view at a distance of 200 feet or less.
Historic Site - A cultural resource
resulting from activities or events dating to the
historic period (generally post AD l830 in
Home Range - The area that an animal
traverses in the scope of normal activities; not
to be confused with territory, which is the area
an animal defends.
Hyporheic Zone - The area under the
stream channel and flood plain that contributes
to the stream.
Impact - A spatial or temporal change
in the environment caused by human activity.
Improved Seed - Seed originated from a
seed orchard or selected tree(s) whose genetic
superiority in one or more characters important
to forestry has been proven by tests conducted in
Infiltration (soil) - The movement of
water through the soil surface into the soil.
Integrated Pest Management
(IPM) - A systematic approach that uses a
variety of techniques to reduce pest damage or
unwanted vegetation to tolerable levels. IPM
techniques may include natural predators and
parasites, genetically resistant hosts,
environmental modifications and, when necessary
and appropriate, chemical pesticides or
Integrated Vegetation Management - See Integrated Pest Management.
Intensively Managed Timber Stands -
Forest stands managed to obtain a high level of
timber volume or quality through investment in
growth enhancing practices, such as precommercial
thinning, commercial thinning, and fertilization.
Not to be confused with the allocations of
"lands available for intensive management of
Management Practices - The growth enhancing
practices of release, precommercial thinning,
commercial thinning, and fertilization, designed
to obtain a high level of timber volume or
Intensive Timber Production Base
- All commercial forest land allocated to timber
production and intensively managed to obtain a
high level of timber volume or quality.
Intermittent Stream - Any nonpermanent
flowing drainage feature having a definable
channel and evidence of scour or deposition. This
includes what are sometimes referred to as
ephemeral streams if they meet these two
Irreversible or Irretrievable Commitment of
Resources - Effect of an action or inaction
that cannot be reversed within a reasonable time.
Issue - A matter of
controversy or dispute over resource management
activities that is well defined or topically
discrete. Addressed in the design of planning
Landing - Any place on or adjacent to
the logging site where logs are assembled for
Landscape - A heterogeneous land area
with interacting ecosystems that are repeated in
similar form throughout.
Landscape Diversity - The size, shape
and connectivity of different ecosystems across a
Landscape Features - The land and water
form, vegetation, and structures that compose the
Land Tenure Adjustments -
- Zone 1 lands include areas
currently identified as having high
public resource values which merit
long-term public ownership under BLM
administration. They do not meet the
criteria for sale under Section203(a) of
FLPMA and would be retained in public
- Zone 2 lands include areas that
meet criteria for exchange because they
form discontinuous ownership patterns,
are less efficient to manage, and may not
be accessible to the general public.
These BLM administered lands may be
exchanged for other lands in Zones 1 or
2, transferred to other public agencies,
or given some form of cooperative
management. These lands do not meet the
criteria for sale under Section 203(a) of
FLPMA. Most lands in this zone would
remain under BLM administration.
- Zone 3 includes lands that are
scattered and isolated with low resource
values. They meet the criteria for sale
under Section 203(a) of FLPMA, if
important recreation, wildlife,
watershed, threatened or endangered
species habitat and/or cultural values
are not identified during disposal
clearance reviews. Oregon and California
(O&C) lands assigned to Zone 3 are
not suitable commercial forest land. Most
lands in Zone 3 would be sold, exchanged,
or transferred out of BLM administration
over time. Zone 3 lands are specifically
identified in Table 2-19.
Allocations - Allocations that define
allowable uses/activities, restricted
uses/activities, and prohibited uses/activities.
They may be expressed in terms of area such as
acres or miles, etc. Each allocation is
associated with a specific management objective.
Forests - Forest seral stages that include
mature and old growth age classes.
Late-Successional Reserve - A forest in
its mature and/or old growth stages that has been
Leasable Minerals - Minerals that may
be leased to private interests by the Federal
government. Includes oil, gas, geothermal
resources, and coal.
Locatable Minerals - Minerals subject
to exploration, development and disposal by
staking mining claims as authorized by the Mining
Law of l872 (as amended). This includes valuable
deposits of gold, silver, and other uncommon
minerals not subject to lease or sale.
Log Decomposition Class - Any of 5
stages of deterioration of logs in the forest;
stages range from essentially sound (class 1) to
almost total decomposition (class 5).
Long-Term - The period starting l0
years following implementation of the Resource
Management Plan. For most analyses, long-term
impacts are defined as those existing 100 years
Long-Term Soil Productivity - The
capability of soil to sustain inherent, natural
growth potential of plants and plant communities
Long-Term Sustained Yield (LTSY) -
Estimated timber harvest that can be maintained
indefinitely, once all stands have been converted
to a managed state under a specific management
Lumber and Wood Products, Except Furniture
- An industrial classification that includes
logging contractors engaged in cutting timber and
pulpwoods: merchant sawmills, lath mills, shingle
mills, planing mills, plywood mills, and veneer
mills engaged in producing lumber and wood basic
materials; and establishments engaged in
manufacturing finished articles made entirely or
mainly of wood or wood substitutes. Certain types
of establishments producing wood products are
classified elsewhere, e.g., furniture and office
and store fixtures are in a different
Grouping - An aggregation of plant
associations with similar management potential
and with the same dominant late seral conifer
species and the same major early seral species.
Late seral rather than climax species are used
because late seral species are usually present
rather than climax communities, and because most
old growth plant communities on BLM administered
lands are made up of late seral species rather
than climax species in the upper canopy.
Pair Areas - In some portions of the northern
spotted Owl's range it is necessary to provide
additional protection in the matrix for pairs of
owls and territorial singles. This consists of
delineating a core habitat area, plus additional
acreage of suitable habitat around the core. The
acreage to be delineated around the core varies
throughout the range, based on data for pairs in
the area. The suitable acreage must be delineated
in a area equal to the mean home range for that
physiographic province. Appropriate silvicultural
treatment is encouraged in suitable and
unsuitable habitat in the acreage around the
Management Actions/Direction - Measures
planned to achieve the stated objective(s).
Management Activity - An activity
undertaken for the purpose of harvesting,
traversing, transporting, protecting, changing,
replenishing, or otherwise using resources.
Management Framework Plan (MFP) - A
land use plan that established coordinated land
use allocations for all resource and support
activities for a specific land area within a BLM
District. It established objectives and
constraints for each resource and support
activity and provided data for consideration in
program planning. This process has been replaced
by the Resource Management Planning process.
Management Objectives - Expressions of
what BLM wants to accomplish with its management
- The downslope movement of earth caused by
gravity. Includes but is not limited to
landslides, rock falls, debris avalanches, and
creep. It does not include surface erosion.
Master Title Plat - A map compiled for
each township from the official government land
surveys on which is shown Federal land ownership,
acreages, and various land status information
such as withdrawals, easements, rights-of-way,
Matrix Lands - Federal land outside of
reserves and special management areas that will
be available for timber harvest at varying
|Metes and Bounds
- A description of the boundaries of a tract of
land utilizing courses and distances between
specific objects such as survey monuments.
- A microcomputer database system providing
background information and recommended treatment
for each operations inventory unit.
Mineral Estate - The ownership of the
minerals at or beneath the surface of the land.
Mineral Potential Classification System
- Method for assessing the potential for the
presence of a concentration of one or more energy
and/or mineral resources.
Minimum Harvest Age - The lowest age of
a forest stand to be scheduled for final harvest.
Minimum Stocking - Reforestation level
lower than target stocking. Does not achieve full
site occupancy in young stands but is capable of
achieving optimal final harvest yield and reduced
commercial thinning yield.
Minimum Streamflow - The quantity of
water needed to maintain the existing and planned
in-place uses of water in or along a stream
channel or other water body, and to maintain the
natural character of the aquatic system and its
Mining Claims - Portions of public
lands claimed for possession of locatable mineral
deposits, by locating and recording under
established rules and pursuant to the 1872 Mining
Mitigating Measures - Modifications of
actions that (a) avoid impacts by not taking a
certain action or parts of an action; (b)
minimize impacts by limiting the degree or
magnitude of the action and its implementation;
(c) rectify impacts by repairing, rehabilitating
or restoring the affected environment; (d) reduce
or eliminate impacts over time by preservation
and maintenance operations during the life of the
action; or (e) compensate for impacts by
replacing or providing substitute resources or
Monitoring - The process of collecting
information to evaluate if objectives and
anticipated or assumed results of a management
plan are being realized or if implementation is
proceeding as planned.
Multiple Use - Management of the public
lands and their various resource values so that
they are utilized in the combination that will
best meet the present and future needs of the
American people; making the most judicious use of
the land for some or all of these resources or
related services over areas large enough to
provide sufficient latitude for periodic
adjustments in use to conform to changing needs
and conditions; the use of some land for less
than all of the resources; a combination of
balanced and diverse resource uses that takes
into account the long-term needs of future
generations for renewable and nonrenewable
resources, including, but not limited to,
recreation, range, timber, minerals, watershed,
wildlife and fish, and natural scenic, scientific
and historical values; and harmonious and
coordinated management of the various resources
without permanent impairment of the productivity
of the land and the quality of the environment
with consideration being given to the relative
values of the resources and not necessarily to
the combination of uses that will give the
greatest economic return or the greatest unit
Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) - Standards
designed to protect public health and welfare,
allowing an adequate margin of safety. For
particulate matter less than l0 microns in size
(PM10), 50 micrograms per cubic meter
annual average and l50 micrograms per cubic
meter, 24-hour average, not to be exceeded more
than once per year.
Failure of a geographical area to attain or
maintain compliance with ambient air quality
Nonattainment Area - A geographical
area that has failed to attain or maintain
compliance with air quality standards.
Nonattainment area boundaries are commonly the
same as city, standard metropolitan statistical
area or County boundaries.
Noxious Plant/Weed - A plant specified
by law as being especially undesirable,
troublesome, and difficult to control.
O&C Lands - Public lands granted to
the Oregon and California Railroad Company and
subsequently revested to the United States, which
are managed by the Bureau of Land Management
under the authority of the O&C Lands Act.
Objectives - Expressions of what are
the desired end results of management efforts.
Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) - Any
motorized track or wheeled vehicle designed for
cross country travel over natural terrain. The
term, "Off Highway Vehicle" will be
used in place of the term "Off-Road
Vehicle" to comply with the purposes of
Executive Orders 11644 and 11989. The definition
for both terms is the same.
- Open: Designated areas and trails
where Off Highway Vehicles may be
operated subject to operating regulations
and vehicle standards set forth in BLM
Manuals 834l and 8343.
- Limited: Designated areas and
trails where Off Highway Vehicles are
subject to restrictions limiting the
number or types of vehicles, date, and
time of use; limited to existing or
designated roads and trails.
- Closed: Areas and trails where the
use of Off Highway Vehicles is
permanently or temporarily prohibited.
Emergency use is allowed.
Conifer Stand - Older forests occurring on
western hemlock, mixed conifer, or mixed
evergreen sites that differ significantly from
younger forests in structure, ecological
function, and species composition. Old growth
characteristics begin to appear in unmanaged
forests at 175 to 250 years of age. These
characteristics include (a) a patchy,
multilayered canopy with trees of several age
classes; (b) the presence of large living trees;
(c) the presence of larger standing dead trees
(snags) and down woody debris; and (d) the
presence of species and functional processes that
are representative of the potential natural
For purposes of inventory, old
growth stands on BLM administered lands are only
identified if they are at least 50 percent
stocked with trees of 200 years or older and are
10 acres or more in size. For purposes of habitat
or biological diversity, the BLM uses the
appropriate minimum and average definitions
provided by Pacific Northwest Experiment Station
publications 447 and GTR-285. This definition is
summarized from the 1986 interim definitions of
the Old Growth Definitions Task Group.
Outstanding Natural Area (ONA) - An
area that contains unusual natural
characteristics and is managed primarily for
educational and recreational purposes.
Remarkable Values (ORV) - Values
among those listed in Section 1 (b) of the Wild
and Scenic Rivers Act: "scenic,
recreational, geological, fish and wildlife,
historical, cultural, or other similar values . .
." Other similar values that may be
considered include ecological, biological or
botanical, paleontological, hydrological,
scientific, or research.
Partial Cutting - Removal of selected
trees from a forest stand.
Particulates - Finely divided solid or
liquid (other than water) particles in the air.
Peak Flow - The highest amount of
stream or river flow occurring in a year or from
a single storm event.
Perennial Stream - A stream that has
running water on a year-round basis under normal
Plan Amendment - A change in the terms,
conditions or decisions of a resource management
- Any documented minor change that interprets,
clarifies, or refines a decision within a
Resource Management Plan but does not change the
scope or conditions of that decision.
Revision - A new Resource Management Plan
prepared by following all steps required by the
regulations for preparing an original Resource
Planning Area - All of the lands within
the BLM management boundary addressed in a BLM
Resource Management Plan; however, BLM planning
decisions apply only to BLM administered lands
and mineral estate.
Planning Issue - See Issue.
- An area of BLM administered land that meets the
relevance and importance criteria for ACEC
designation, as follows:
- (1) Relevance. There shall be
present a significant historic, cultural,
or scenic value; a fish or wildlife
resource or other natural system or
process; or natural hazard.
- (2) Importance. The above
described value, resource, system,
process, or hazard shall have substantial
significance and values. This generally
requires qualities of more than local
significance and special worth,
consequence, meaning, distinctiveness, or
cause for concern. A natural hazard can
be important if it is a significant
threat to human life or property.
Potential Natural Community - The
community of plants and wild animals that would
become established if all successional sequences
were completed without interference by man under
present environmental conditions. For forest
communities, the potential natural community is
an old growth conifer stand.
Precommercial Thinning - The practice
of removing some of the trees less than
merchantable size from a stand so that remaining
trees will grow faster.
Prescribed Fire - A fire burning under
specified conditions that will accomplish certain
Probable Sale Quantity
(PSQ) - Probable Sale Quantity estimates the
allowable harvest levels for the various
alternatives that could be maintained without
decline over the long-term if the schedule of
harvests and regeneration were followed.
"Allowable" was changed to
"probable" to reflect uncertainty in
the calculations for some alternatives. Probable
Sale Quantity is otherwise comparable to Allowable Sale Quantity (ASQ).
However, Probable Sale Quantity does not reflect
a commitment to a specific cut level. Probable
Sale Quantity includes only scheduled or
regulated yields and does not include "other
wood" or volume of cull and other products
that are not normally part of Allowable Sale
|Progeny Test Site
- A test area for evaluating parent seed trees by
comparing the growth of their offspring
Proposed Threatened or Endangered
Species - Plant or animal species proposed by
the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to be
biologically appropriate for listing as
threatened or endangered, and published in the
Federal Register. It is not a final designation.
Public Domain Lands - Original holdings
of the United States never granted or conveyed to
other jurisdictions, or reacquired by exchange
for other public domain lands.
Public Water System
- A system providing piped water for public
consumption. Such a system has at least 15
service connections or regularly serves at least
Rearing Habitat - Areas in rivers or
streams where juvenile salmon and trout find food
and shelter to live and grow.
Recovery Plan - A plan for the
conservation and survival of an endangered
species or a threatened species listed under the
Endangered Species Act, to improve the status of
the species to make continued listing
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS) -
A fundamental Recreation planning tool that
recognizes the critical link between the setting
of an activity and the subsequent experience it
provides. The ROS provides a framework for
defining the types of outdoor recreation
opportunities the public might desire, and
identifies that portion of the spectrum a given
agency might be able to provide. The spectrum has
7 categories ranging from Primitive to Urban.
Recreational River - See Wild and Scenic River System.
Reforestation - The natural or
artificial restocking of an area with forest
trees; most commonly used in reference to
Regeneration Harvest - Timber harvest
conducted with the partial objective of opening a
forest stand to the point where favored tree
species will be reestablished.
Regeneration Period - The time it takes
to reforest an area to adequate stocking
following a timber sale.
Regional Ecosystem Office (REO) - The
main function of this office is to provide staff
work and support to the Regional Interagency
Executive Committee (RIEC) so the standards and
guidelines in the forest management plan can be
Interagency Executive Committee (RIEC) - This
group serves as the senior regional entity to
assure the prompt, coordinated and successful
implementation of the forest management plan
standards and guidelines at the regional level.
Forest - A forest that comprises an even
distribution of age classes or tree sizes, when
the growth equals the cut (at the highest level
sustainable) and when the level of growing stock
remains relatively constant.
Research Natural Area (RNA) - An area
that contains natural resource values of
scientific interest and is managed primarily for
research and educational purposes.
Reserved Federal Mineral Estate - Land
on which the Federal government has ownership of
minerals but the surface estate is private or
other nonfederal ownership.
Reserved Pair Areas - In those portions
of the species' range where habitat and owl
populations are inadequate to apply the criteria
creating designated conservation areas, then
individual pair areas were also reserved. These
are areas of suitable habitat identified for
pairs and territorial single owls. The acreage of
these areas varies throughout the range, based on
data for pairs in each physiographic province.
All suitable habitat is reserved in an area equal
to the mean home range for that province.
Residual Habitat Area - An area about
100 acres in size of nesting, roosting, and
foraging habitat encompassing the known activity
center for a pair of owls or a territorial single
owl. The intended purpose is to protect the core
areas in the short-term and to provide potential
nest sites in the long-term. These areas have now
been added to the LSR system as unmapped
Resource Management Plan (RMP) - A land
use plan prepared by the BLM under current
regulations in accordance with the Federal Land
Policy and Management Act.
Right-of-Way - A permit or an easement
that authorizes the use of public lands for
specified purposes, such as pipelines, roads,
telephone lines, electric lines, reservoirs, and
the lands covered by such an easement or permit.
Riparian Management Area - An area
allocated in the plan primarily to protect the
riparian and/or streamside zone.
Riparian Reserves - Designated riparian
areas as described in the SEIS/ROD.
Ripping - The process of breaking up or
loosening compacted soil to assure better
penetration of roots of young tree seedlings.
The planned number of years between establishment
of a forest stand and its regeneration harvest.
Interface Areas - Areas where BLM
administered lands are adjacent to or
intermingled with privately owned lands zoned for
1 to 20-acre lots or that already have
Salable Minerals - High volume, low
value mineral resources including common
varieties of rock, clay, decorative stone, sand,
Scarification - Mechanical removal of
competing vegetation or interfering debris prior
Scenic Quality - The relative worth of
a landscape from a visual perception point of
Scenic River - See Wild and Scenic River System.
Scribner Short Log - A log measurement
rule constructed from diagrams that shows the
number of 1-inch boards, which can be drawn in a
circle representing the small end of a
16-foot-long log, assumes a 1/4-inch saw kerf
groove, makes a liberal allowance for slabs, and
disregards log taper.
Sediment Yield - The quantity of soil,
rock particles, organic matter or other debris
transported through a cross section of stream in
a given period of time. Measured in dry weight or
by volume. Consists of suspended sediment and
Seed Tree Cutting Method - An even-aged
reproductive cutting method in which all mature
timber from an area is harvested in one entry
except for a small number of trees left as a seed
source for the harvested area.
Seed Orchard - A plantation of clones
or seedlings from selected trees; isolated to
reduce pollination from outside sources, weeded
of undesirables, and cultured for early and
abundant production of seed.
Selection Cutting - A method of
uneven-aged management involving the harvesting
of single trees from stands (single-tree
selection) or in groups (group selection) without
harvesting the entire stand at any one time.
Sensitivity Analysis - A process of
examining specific tradeoffs that would result
from making changes in single elements of a plan
Sensitivity Levels - Measures (e.g.,
high, medium, and low) of public concern for the
maintenance of scenic quality.
Seral Stages - The series of relatively
transitory plant communities that develop during
ecological succession from bare ground to the
climax stage. There are five stages:
- Early Seral Stage - The period
from disturbance to crown closure of
conifer stands usually occurring from
0-15 years. Grass, herbs, or brush are
- Mid Seral Stage - The period in
the life of a forest stand from crown
closure to ages 15-40. Due to stand
density, brush, grass, or herbs rapidly
decrease in the stand. Hiding cover may
- Late Seral Stage - The period in
the life of a forest stand from first
merchantability to culmination of mean
annual increment. This is under a regime
including commercial thinning, or to 100
years of age, depending on wildlife
habitat needs. During this period, stand
diversity is minimal, except that conifer
mortality rates will be fairly rapid.
Hiding and thermal cover may be present.
Forage is minimal.
- Mature Seral Stage - The period in
the life of a forest stand from
Culmination of Mean Annual Increment to
an old growth stage or to 200 years. This
is a time of gradually increasing stand
diversity. Hiding cover, thermal cover,
and some forage may be present.
- Old Growth - This stage
constitutes the potential plant community
capable of existing on a site given the
frequency of natural disturbance events.
For forest communities, this stage exists
from approximately age 200 until when
stand replacement occurs and secondary
succession begins again. Depending on
fire frequency and intensity, old growth
forests may have different structures,
species composition and age
distributions. In forests with longer
periods between natural disturbance, the
forest structure will be more even-aged
at late mature or early old growth
Shelterwood Cutting - A regeneration
method under an even-aged silvicultural system. A
portion of the mature stand is retained as a
source of seed and/or protection during the
period of regeneration. The mature stand is
removed in two or more cuttings.
Short-Term - The period of time during
which the RMP will be implemented; assumed to be
Silvicultural Prescription - A
professional plan for controlling the
establishment, composition, constitution, and
growth of forests.
Silvicultural System - A planned
sequence of treatments over the entire life of a
forest stand needed to meet management
Site Class - A measure of an area's
relative capacity for producing timber or other
Site Index - A measure of forest
productivity expressed as the height of the
tallest trees in a stand at an index age.
- Any action taken in conjunction with a
reforestation effort (natural or artificial) to
create an environment that is favorable for
survival of suitable trees during the first
growing season. This environment can be created
by altering ground cover, soil or microsite
conditions, using biological, mechanical, or
manual clearing, prescribed burns, herbicides or
a combination of methods.
Skid Trail - A
pathway created by dragging logs to a landing
Skyline Yarding - A cable yarding
system using one of the cables to support a
carriage from which logs are suspended and then
pulled to a landing.
Slash - The branches, bark, tops, cull
logs, and broken or uprooted trees left on the
ground after logging.
Slope Failure - See Mass Movement.
Smoke Management - Conducting a
prescribed fire under suitable fuel moisture and
meteorological conditions with firing techniques
that keep smoke impact on the environment within
Smoke Management Program - A program
designed to ensure that smoke impacts on air
quality from agricultural or forestry burning
operations are minimized; that impacts do not
exceed, or significantly contribute to,
violations of air quality standards or visibility
protection guidelines; and that necessary open
burning can be accomplished to achieve land
Smoke Sensitive Area - An area
identified by the Oregon Smoke Management Plan
that may be negatively affected by smoke but is
not classified as a Designated Area.
Snag - Any standing dead,
partially-dead, or defective (cull) tree at least
l0 inches in diameter at breast height (dbh) and
at least 6 feet tall. A hard snag is composed
primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable.
A soft snag is composed primarily of wood in
advanced stages of decay and deterioration,
generally not merchantable.
Snag Dependent Species - Birds and
animals dependent on snags for nesting, roosting,
or foraging habitat.
Soil Compaction - An increase in bulk
density (weight per unit volume) and a decrease
in soil porosity resulting from applied loads,
vibration, or pressure.
Soil Displacement - The removal and
horizontal movement of soil from one place to
another by mechanical forces such as a blade.
Soil Productivity - Capacity or
suitability of a soil for establishment and
growth of a specified crop or plant species,
primarily through nutrient availability.
|Soil Series -
A group of soils developed from a particular type
of parent material having naturally developed
horizons that, except for texture of the surface
layer, are similar in differentiating
characteristics and in arrangement of the
Special Areas - Areas that may
need special management, which may include
management as an ACEC, RNA, ONA, environmental
education area, or other special category.
Special Forest Products - Firewood,
shake bolts, mushrooms, ferns, floral greens,
berries, mosses, bark, grasses, etc. that could
be harvested in accordance with the objectives
and guidelines in the Proposed Resource
Special Habitat Features - Habitats of
special importance due to their uniqueness or
Special Recreation Management Area (SRMA)
- An area where a commitment has been to provide
specific recreation activity and experience
opportunities. These areas usually require a high
level of recreation investment and/or management.
They include recreation sites but recreation
sites alone do not constitute SRMAs.
Special Status Species - Plant or
animal species falling in any of the following
categories (see separate glossary definitions for
- - Threatened or Endangered Species
- - Proposed Threatened or Endangered
- - Candidate Species
- - State Listed Species
- - Bureau Sensitive Species
- - Bureau Assessment Species
Species Diversity - The number,
different kinds and relative abundance of
Splash Dam - A method of moving logs by
rafting them downstream. A log dam would be built
in front of the instream logs. When enough water
and logs were collected behind the dam, the dam
was broken releasing an avalanche of logs and
water. This practice would scour the soil and
vegetation from the streambed and banks for miles
downstream. Splash damming has not been practiced
in the planning area for over 40 years.
Split Estate - An area of land where
the surface is nonfederally owned and the
subsurface mineral resources are Federally owned
or vice versa.
Spotted Owl Habitat Sites - Sites
monitored by BLM for spotted owl occupancy during
some or all of the years l985 through l988, in
accordance with BLM's spotted owl monitoring
guidelines. These sites are known to have been
inhabited by spotted owls at some time in the
last dozen years, but not necessarily during the
Stand) - An aggregation of trees occupying a
specific area and sufficiently uniform in
composition, age, arrangement, and condition so
that it is distinguishable from the forest in
Stand Density - An
expression of the number and size of trees on a
forest site. May be expressed in terms of numbers
of trees per acre, basal area, stand density
index, or relative density index.
Stand Replacing Wildfire - A wildfire
that kills nearly 100 percent of the stand.
State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO)
- The State official authorized to act as a
liaison to the Secretary of the Interior for
purposes of implementing the National Historic
Preservation Act of l966.
State Implementation Plan (SIP) - A
State document, required by the Clean Air Act. It
describes a comprehensive plan of action for
achieving specified air quality objectives and
standards for a particular locality or region
within a specified time, as enforced by the State
and approved by the Environmental Protection
State Listed Species - Plant or animal
species listed by the State of Oregon as
threatened or endangered pursuant to ORS 496.004,
ORS 498.026, or ORS 564.040.
Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation
Plan (SCORP) - A plan prepared by the State
that describes and analyzes the organization and
function of the outdoor recreation system of the
state. The plan provides an analysis of the roles
and responsibilities of major outdoor recreation
suppliers; an analysis of demand, supply and
needs; issue discussions; an action program to
address the issues; and a project selection
Stocked/Stocking - Related to the
number and spacing of trees in a forest stand.
Strategic and Critical Minerals -
Minerals that supply military, industrial and
essential civilian needs of the United States
during a national defense emergency. They are not
found or produced in this country in sufficient
quantities to meet such needs. Nickel, cobalt and
chromium are examples of such minerals occurring
in western Oregon.
Stream Class - A system of stream
classification established in the Oregon Forest
Practices Act at the time the planning documents
were written. Class I streams are those which are
significant for: 1) domestic use, 2) angling, 3)
water dependent recreation, and 4) spawning,
rearing or migration of anadromous or game fish.
All other streams are Class II. Class II special
protection streams (Class II SP) are Class II
streams that have a significant summertime
cooling influence on downstream Class I waters,
which are at or near a temperature at which
production of anadromous or game fish is limited.
- A hydrologic system of stream classification
based on stream branching. Each small unbranched
tributary is a 1st order stream. Two 1st order
streams join to make a 2nd order stream. Two 2nd
order streams join to form a 3rd order stream and
Stream Reach - An individual
1st order stream or a segment of another stream
that has beginning and ending points at a stream
confluence. Reach end points are normally
designated where a tributary confluence changes
the channel character or order. Although reaches
identified by BLM are variable in length, they
normally have a range of 1/2 to 1-1/2 miles in
length unless channel character, confluence
distribution, or management considerations
Structural Diversity - Variety in a
forest stand that results from layering or
tiering of the canopy and the die-back, death and
ultimate decay of trees. In aquatic habitats, the
presence of a variety of structural features such
as logs and boulders that create a variety of
Succession - A series of dynamic
changes by which one group of organisms succeeds
another through stages leading to potential
natural community or climax. An example is the
development of series of plant communities
(called seral stages) following a major
Suitable Commercial Forest Land -
Commercial forest land capable of sustained
long-term timber production.
Suitable River - A river segment found
through administrative study by an appropriate
agency to meet the criteria for designation as a
component of the National
Wild and Scenic Rivers system as specified in
Section 4(a) of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act.
Suitable Woodland - Forest land
occupied by minor conifer and hardwood species
not considered in the commercial forest land PSQ
determination and referred to as noncommercial
species. These species may be considered
commercial for fuelwood, etc. under woodland
management. Also included are low site and
nonsuitable commercial forest land. These lands
must be biologically and environmentally capable
of supporting a sustained yield of forest
Surface Erosion - The detachment and
transport of soil particles by wind, water, or
gravity. Surface erosion can occur as the loss of
soil in a uniform layer (sheet erosion) in many
rills, or by dry ravel.
Sediment - Sediment suspended in a fluid by
the upward components of turbulent currents or by
Sustained Yield -
The yield that a forest can produce continuously
at a given intensity of management.
Sustained Yield Unit (SYU) - An
administrative division for which an allowable
sale quantity is calculated.
Target Stocking - The desirable number
of well-spaced trees per acre at age of first
Ten Percent Stocked - Stocking of tree
seedlings and saplings (0.5 inches in diameter
4.5 feet above the ground) that are well
distributed over the land and are more than 30
per acre in number. Or the stocking of trees
larger than 5 inches in diameter with foliage
that covers at least l0 percent of the land
Texture (soil) - The relative
proportion of sand, silt, and clay in a soil;
grouped into standard classes and subclasses in
the USDA Soil Survey Manual.
Thermal Cover - Cover used by animals
to lessen the effects of weather. For elk, a
stand of conifer trees that are 40 feet or more
tall with an average crown closure of 70 percent
or more. For deer, cover may include saplings,
shrubs or trees at least 5 feet tall with 75
percent crown closure.
Threatened Species - Any species
defined through the Endangered Species Act as
likely to become endangered within the
foreseeable future throughout all or a
significant portion of its range and published in
the Federal Register.
Timber Management Plan - An activity
plan that specifically addresses procedures
related to the offering and sale of timber volume
consistent with the approved Allowable
Timber Production Capability Classification
(TPCC) - The process of partitioning forest
land into major classes indicating relative
suitability to produce timber on a sustained
Title Plat Acre - The official acreage
of a tract of land as shown on the most current
official BLM cadastral survey plat.
Total Suspended Particulates - All
solid or semi-solid material found in the
Transportation System - Network of
roads used to manage BLM administered lands.
Includes BLM controlled roads and some privately
controlled roads. Does not include Oregon
Department of Transportation, County and
Travel Corridor - A route used by
animals along a belt or band of suitable cover or
Treatable Water - Water capable of
being treated with commonly used filtration and
- The condition when a plantation of trees fails
to meet the minimum requirements for number of
well spaced trees per acre.
Management - A combination of actions that
simultaneously maintains continuous tall forest
cover, recurring regeneration of desirable
species, and the orderly growth and development
of trees through a range of diameter or age
classes. Cutting methods that develop and
maintain uneven-aged stands are single tree
selection and group selection.
Unique Ecosystems - Ecosystems
embracing special habitat features such as
beaches and dunes, talus slopes, meadows, and
Unnecessary or Undue Degradation -
Surface disturbance greater than what would
normally result when a mineral exploration or
development activity regulated under 43 CFR 3809
is being accomplished by a prudent operator in
usual, customary and proficient operations of
similar character, and taking into consideration
the effects of operations on other resources and
land uses outside the area of operations. Failure
to initiate and complete reasonable mitigation
measures, including reclamation of disturbed
areas; or failure to prevent the creation of a
nuisance, which may constitute unnecessary or
undue degradation. Failure to comply with
applicable environmental protection statutes and
regulations thereunder will constitute
unnecessary or undue degradation.
Utility Corridor - A linear strip of
land identified for the present or future
location of utility lines within its boundaries.
Viable Population - A wildlife or plant
population that contains an adequate number of
reproductive individuals to appropriately ensure
the long-term existence of the species.
Viewshed - The landscape that can be
directly seen from a viewpoint or along a
Visibility Protection Plan - A plan
that implements the requirements of the Clean Air
Act by establishing programs for visibility
monitoring; short and long-term control
strategies; and procedures for program review,
coordination, and consultation.
Visual Resources - The visible physical
features of a landscape.
Visual Resource Management (VRM) - The
inventory and planning actions to identify visual
values and establish objectives for managing
those values and the management actions to
achieve visual management objectives.
Visual Resource Management Classes -
Categories assigned to public lands based on
scenic quality, sensitivity level, and distance
zones. There are four classes. Each class has an
objective that prescribes the amount of
modification allowed in the landscape.
Wildlife - A Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
program designed to increase opportunities to
photograph, study, or simply watch the countless
mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and
invertebrates that live on the 270 million acres
of Federal land that BLM administers.
Quality - The chemical, physical, and
biological characteristics of water.
Water Yield - The quantity of water
derived from a unit area of watershed.
Western Oregon Digital Data Base (WODDB)
- A very high resolution (l"=400')
geographic digital (computer) database derived
from aerial photography for BLM lands in western
Wetlands or Wetland Habitat - Those
areas that are inundated or saturated by surface
or ground water at a frequency and duration
sufficient to support, and that under normal
circumstances do support, a prevalence of
vegetation typically adapted for living in
saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally
include, but are not limited to, swamps, marshes,
bogs, and similar areas.
Wet Meadows - Areas where grasses
predominate. Normally waterlogged within a few
inches of the ground surface.
Wild and Scenic River
System - A National system of rivers or
river segments that have been designated by
Congress and the President as part of the
National Wild and Scenic Rivers System (Public
Law 90-542, 1968). Each designated river is
classified as one of the following:
Wild River - A river or section of a
river free of impoundments and generally
inaccessible except by trail, with watersheds or
shorelines essentially primitive and waters
unpolluted. Designated wild as part of the
National Wild and Scenic Rivers System.
Scenic River - A river or section of a
river free of impoundments, with shorelines or
watersheds still largely primitive and
undeveloped but accessible in places by roads.
Designated scenic as part of the National Wild
and Scenic Rivers System.
Recreational River - A river or section
of a river readily accessible by road or
railroad, that may have some development along
its shorelines, and that may have undergone some
impoundment of diversion in the past. Designated
recreational as part of the National Wild and
Scenic Rivers System.
Wilderness Study Area (WSA) - A
roadless area inventoried and found to be
wilderness in character, having few human
developments and providing outstanding
opportunities for solitude and primitive
recreation, as described in Section 603 of the
Federal Land Policy and Management Act and in
Section 2(c) of the Wilderness Act of l964.
- A live tree retained to become future snag
Wild River - See Wild and Scenic River System
Windthrow - A tree or trees uprooted or
felled by the wind.
Withdrawal - A designation that
restricts or closes public lands from the
operation of land or mineral disposal laws.
Woodland - Forest land producing trees
not typically used as saw timber products and not
included in calculation of the commercial forest
Yarding - The act or process of moving
logs to a landing.
Yield Table - A table of timber volumes
expected to be produced under a certain set of