Activity Plan - A document that describes management objectives, actions, and projects to implement decisions of the RMP or other planning documents. Usually prepared for one or more resources in a specific area.
Allowable Sale Quantity (ASQ) - The gross amount of timber volume, including salvage, that may be sold annually from a specified area over a stated period of time in accordance with the management plan. Formerly referred to as "allowable cut."
Aquatic Ecosystem - Any body of watersuch as a stream, lake, or estuary, and all organisms and nonliving components within it functioning as a natural system.
Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC) - An area of BLM-administered lands where special management attention is needed to protect and prevent irreparable damage to important historic, cultural or scenic values, fish and wildlife resources or other natural systems or processes; or to protect life and provide safety from natural hazards. (Also see Potential ACEC.)
Area Regulation - A method of scheduling timber harvest based on dividing the total acres by an assumed rotation.
Available Forest Land - That portion of the forested acres for which timber production is planned and included within the acres contributing to the allowable sale quantity (ASQ). This includes both lands allocated primarily to timber production and lands on which timber production is a secondary objective.
Back Country Byway - A road segment designated as part of the National Scenic Byway System.
Beneficial Use - The reasonable use of water for a purpose consistent with the laws and best interest of the peoples of the state. Such uses include, but are not limited to, the following: instream, out of stream and groundwater uses, domestic, municipal, industrial water supply, mining, irrigation, livestock watering, fish and aquatic life, wildlife, fishing, water contact recreation, aesthetics and scenic attraction, hydropower, and commercial navigation.
Best Management Practices (BMP) - Methods, measures, or practices designed to prevent or reduce water pollution. Not limited to structural and nonstructural controls, and procedures for operations and maintenance. Usually, BMPs are applied as a system of practices rather than a single practice.
Biological Diversity - The variety of life and its processes.
Biological Legacies - Components of the forest stand (e.g., large trees, down logs, and snags) reserved from harvest to maintain site productivity and to provide structure and ecological functions in subsequent forest stands.
Board Foot (BF) - A unit of solid wood that is one foot square and one inch thick.
Candidate Species - Those plants and animals included in Federal Register "Notices of Review" that are being considered by the Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) for listing as threatened or endangered. There are two categories that are of primary concern to BLM. These are:
Casual Use - Activities ordinarily resulting in negligible disturbance of federal lands and resources.
Commercial Forest Land - Forest land producing or capable of producing at least 20 cubic feet of wood per acre per year of commercial tree species.
Commercial Thinning - The removal of merchantable trees from an even-aged stand to encourage growth of the remaining trees.
Commercial Tree Species - Conifer species used to calculate the commercial forest land ASQ. They are typically utilized as saw timber and include species such as Douglas-fir, hemlock, spruce, fir, pine, and cedar.
Commodity Resources - Goods or products of economic use or value.
Community Stability - The capacity of a community (incorporated town or county) to absorb and cope with change without major hardship to institutions or groups within the community.
Community Water System - See Public Water System.
Congressionally Reserved Areas - Areas that require Congressional enactment for their establishment, such as national parks, wilderness, and wild and scenic rivers.
Connectivity - A measure of the extent to which conditions between late-successional/old-growth forest areas provide habitat for breeding, feeding, dispersal, and movement of late-successional/old-growth-associated wildlife and fish species.
Consistency - Under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, the adherence of BLM resource management plans to the terms, conditions, and decisions of officially approved and adopted resource related plans, or in their absence, with policies and programs of other federal agencies, state and local governments and Indian tribes, so long as the plans are also consistent with the purposes, policies and programs of federal laws and regulations applicable to BLM-administered lands. Under the Coastal Zone Management Act, the adherence to approved state management programs to the maximum extent practicable, of federal agency activities affecting the defined coastal zone.
Constrained Timber Production Base - Acreage managed for timber production at less than full intensity in consideration of nontimber resource management objectives.
Coos Bay Wagon Road (CBWR) Lands - Public lands granted to the Southern Oregon Company and subsequently reconveyed to the United States.
Critical Habitat - Under the Endangered Species Act, (1) the specific areas within the geographic area occupied by a federally listed species on which are found physical and biological features essential to the conservation of the species, and that may require special management considerations or protection; and (2) specific areas outside the geographic area occupied by a listed species when it is determined that such areas are essential for the conservation of the species.
Cubic Foot - A unit of solid wood that is one foot square and one foot thick.
Cull - A tree or log that does not meet merchantable specifications.
Cultural Resource - Any definite location of past human activity identifiable through field survey, historical documentation, or oral evidence. Includes archaeological or architectural sites, structures, or places; and places of traditional cultural or religious importance to specified groups whether or not represented by physical remains.
Cumulative Effect - The impact that results from identified actions when they are added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of who undertakes such other actions. Cumulative effects can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time.
Density Management - Cutting of trees for the primary purpose of widening their spacing so that growth of remaining trees can be accelerated. Density management harvest can also be used to improve forest health, open the forest canopy, or accelerate the attainment of old growth characteristics if maintenance or restoration of biological diversity is the objective.
Diameter At Breast Height (dbh) - The diameter of a tree 4.5 feet above the ground on the uphill side of the tree.
Dispersed Recreation - Outdoor recreation in which visitors are diffused over relatively large areas. Where facilities or developments are provided, they are primarily for access and protection of the environment rather than comfort or convenience of the user.
District Defined Reserves - Areas designated for the protection of specific resources, flora, fauna, and other values. These areas are not included in other land use allocations nor in the calculation of the ASQ.
Domestic Water Supply - Water used for human consumption.
Ecological Health - The condition of an ecosystem in which processes and functions are adequate to maintain diversity of biotic communities commensurate with those initially found there.
Ecosystem Diversity - The variety of species and ecological processes that occur in different physical settings.
Ecosystem Management - The management of lands and their resources to meet objectives based on their whole ecosystem function rather than on their character in isolation. Management objectives blend long-term needs of people and environmental values in such a way that the lands will support diverse, healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems.
Eligible River - A river or river segment foundthrough interdisciplinary team and, in some cases, interagency review to meet Wild and Scenic River Act criteria of being free-flowing and possessing one or more outstandingly remarkable values.
Endangered Species - Any species defined through the Endangered Species Act as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range and published in the Federal Register.
Environmental Assessment (EA) - A systematic analysis of site-specific BLM activities used to determine whether such activities have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment and whether a formal environmental impact statement is required and also to aid an agency's compliance with NEPA when no EIS is necessary.
Environmental Impact - The positive or negative effect of any action upon a given area or resource.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) - A formal document to be filed with the Environmental Protection Agency and that considers significant environmental impacts expected from implementation of a major federal action.
Ephemeral Streams - Streams that contain running water only sporadically, such as during and following storm events.
Extensive Recreation Management Areas (ERMAs) - All BLM-administered lands outside Special Recreation Management Areas. These areas may include developed and primitive recreation sites with minimal facilities.
Forest Health - The ability of forest ecosystems to remain productive, resilient, and stable over time and to withstand the effects of periodic natural or human-caused stresses such as drought, insect attack, disease, climatic changes, flood, resource management practices, and resource demands.
Forest Land - Land that is now, or is capable of becoming, at least l0 percent stocked with forest trees and that has not been developed for nontimber use.
Fragile Nonsuitable - A TPCC classification indicating forest land having fragile conditions, which, if harvested, would result in reduced future productivityeven if special harvest or restrictive measures are applied. These fragile conditions are related to soils, geologic structure, topography, and ground water.
Full Log Suspension - Suspension of the entire log above the ground during yarding operations.
General Forest Management Area (GFMA) - Forest land managed on a regeneration harvest cycle of 70-110 years. A biological legacy of six to eight green trees per acre would be retained to assure forest health. Commercial thinning would be applied where practicable and where research indicates there would be gains in timber production.
Genetic Diversity - The variety within populations of a species.
Green Tree Retention - A stand management practice in which live treesas well as snags and large down woodare left as biological legacies within harvest units to provide habitat components over the next management cycle.
Habitat Diversity - The number of different types of habitat within a given area.
Hardwood Site - A forest site occupied by hardwoods that is unsuitable for the production of conifer species.
Hazardous Materials - Anything that poses a substantive present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Historic Site - A cultural resource resulting from activities or events dating to the historic period (generally post AD l830 in western Oregon).
Improved Seed - Seed originated from a seed orchard or selected tree(s) whose genetic superiority in one or more characters important to forestry has been proven by tests conducted in specific environments.
Instant Study Area - A natural area formally identified by BLM for accelerated wilderness review by notice published before October 21, 1975.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - A systematic approach that uses a variety of techniques to reduce pest damage or unwanted vegetation to tolerable levels. IPM techniques may include natural predators and parasites, genetically resistant hosts, environmental modifications, andwhen necessary and appropriatechemical pesticides or herbicides.
Integrated Vegetation Management - See Integrated Pest Management.
Intensively Managed Timber Stands - Forest stands managed to obtain a high level of timber volume or quality through investment in growth enhancing practices, such as precommercial thinning, commercial thinning, and fertilization. Not to be confused with the allocations of "lands available for intensive management of forest products."
Intensive Forest Management Practices - The growth enhancing practices of release, precommercial thinning, commercial thinning, and fertilization that are designed to obtain a high level of timber volume or quality.
Intermittent Stream - Any nonpermanent, flowing drainage feature having a definable channel and evidence of annual scour or deposition. This includes what are sometimes referred to as ephemeral streams if they meet these two criteria.
Landscape - A heterogeneous land area with interacting ecosystems that are repeated in similar form throughout.
Landscape Diversity - The size, shape and connectivity of different ecosystems across a large area.
Landscape Features - The land and water form, vegetation, and structures that compose the characteristic landscape.
Land Use Allocations - Allocations that define allowable uses/activities, restricted uses/activities, and prohibited uses/activities. They may be expressed in terms of area such as acres or miles. Each allocation is associated with a specific management objective.
Late-Successional Forests - Forest seral stages that include mature and old-growth age classes, 80 years and older.
Late-Successional Reserve (LSR) - A forest in its mature and/or old-growth stages that has been reserved.
Leasable Minerals - Minerals that may be leased to private interests by the federal government. Includes oil, gas, geothermal resources, and coal.
Locatable Minerals - Minerals subject to exploration, development and disposal by staking mining claims as authorized by the Mining Law of l872 (as amended). This includes valuable deposits of gold, silver, and other uncommon minerals not subject to lease or sale.
Log Decomposition Class - Any of five stages of deterioration of logs in the forest; stages range from essentially sound (class 1) to almost total decomposition (class 5).
Management Actions/Direction - Measures planned to achieve the stated objectives.
Management Activity - An activity undertaken for the purpose of harvesting, traversing, transporting, protecting, changing, replenishing, or otherwise using resources.
Matrix Lands - Federal land outside of reserves and special management areas that will be available for timber harvest at varying levels.
Mineral Estate - The ownership of the minerals at or beneath the surface of the land.
Mineral Restriction Categories
Minimum Harvest Age - The lowest age of a forest stand to be scheduled for final harvest.
Mining Claims - Portions of public lands claimed for possession of locatable mineral deposits by locating and recording under established rules and pursuant to the 1872 Mining Law.
Mitigating Measures - Modifications of actions that (1) avoid impacts by not taking a certain action or parts of an action, (2) minimize impacts by limiting the degree or magnitude of the action and its implementation, (3) rectify impacts by repairing, rehabilitating, or restoring the affected environment, (4) reduce or eliminate impacts over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action, or (5) compensate for impacts by replacing or providing substitute resources or environments.
Monitoring - The process of collecting information to evaluate if objectives and anticipated or assumed results of a management plan are being realized or if implementation is proceeding as planned.
Multi-aged Stand - A forest stand that has more than one distinct age class arising from specific disturbance and regeneration events at various times. These stands normally will have multi-layered structure.
Multi-layered Canopy - Forest stands with two or more distinct tree layers in the canopy; also called multi-storied stands.
Noncommercial Forest Land - Land incapable of yielding at least 20 cubic feet of wood per acre per year of commercial species, or land that is capable of producing only noncommercial tree species.
Noxious Plant - A plant specified by law as being especially undesirable, troublesome, and difficult to control.
Noxious Weed - See Noxious Plant.
O&C Lands - Public lands granted to the Oregon and California Railroad Company and subsequently revested to the United States.
Objectives - Expressions of what are the desired end results of management efforts.
Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) - Any motorized track or wheeled vehicle designed for cross country travel over natural terrain. (The term "Off-Highway Vehicle" is used in place of the term "Off-Road Vehicle" to comply with the purposes of Executive Orders 11644 and 11989. The definition for both terms is the same.)
Off-Highway Vehicle Designation
Old-Growth-Dependent Species - An animal species so adapted that it can exist only in old growth forests.
Outstandingly Remarkable Values (ORVs) - Values among those listed in Section 1(b) of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act: "scenic, recreational, geological, fish and wildlife, historical, cultural, or other similar values ..." Other similar values which may be considered include ecological, biological or botanical, paleontological, hydrological, scientific, or research.
Overstory Removal - The final stage of cutting where the remaining overstory trees are removed to allow the understory to grow. Overstory removal is generally accomplished three to five years after reforestation and when adequate stocking has been achieved.
Partial Cutting - Removal of selected trees from a forest stand.
Partial Log Suspension - During yarding operations, suspension of one end of the log above the ground.
Particulates - Finely-divided solid or liquid (other than water) particles in the air.
Perennial Stream - A stream that has running water on a year-round basis under normal climatic conditions.
Plant Association - A plant community type based on land management potential, successional patterns, and species composition.
Plant Community - An association of plants of various species found growing together in different areas with similar site characteristics.
Plantation Maintenance - Actions in an unestablished forest stand to promote the survival of desired crop trees.
Plantation Release - All activities associated with promoting the dominance and/or growth of desired tree species within an established forest stand.
Precommercial Thinning - The practice of removing some of the trees less than merchantable size from a stand so that remaining trees will grow faster.
Prescribed Fire - A fire burning under specified conditions to accomplish certain planned objectives.
Progeny Test Site - A test area for evaluating parent seed trees by comparing the growth of their offspring seedlings.
Proposed Threatened or Endangered Species - Plant or animal species proposed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service to be biologically appropriate for listing as threatened or endangered and that is published in the Federal Register. It is not a final designation.
Public Domain Lands (PD) - Original holdings of the United States never granted or conveyed to other jurisdictions, or reacquired by exchange for other public domain lands.
Public Water System - A system providing piped water for public consumption. Such a system has at least 15 service connections or regularly serves at least 25 individuals.
Recovery Plan - A plan for the conservation and survival of an endangered species or a threatened species listed under the Endangered Species Act; the plan's purpose is to improve the status of the species to make continued listing unnecessary.
Reforestation - The natural or artificial restocking of an area with forest trees; most commonly used in reference to artificial stocking.
Regeneration Harvest - Timber harvest conducted with the partial objective of opening a forest stand to the point where favored tree species will be re-established.
Regional Ecosystem Office (REO) - The main function of this office is to provide staff work and support to the Regional Interagency Executive Committee so the standards and guidelines in the forest management plan can be successfully implemented.
Research Natural Area (RNA) - An area that contains natural resource values of scientific interest and is managed primarily for research and educational purposes.
Reserved Federal Mineral Estate - Land on which the federal government has ownership of minerals, but the surface estate is private or other nonfederal ownership.
Resource Management Plan (RMP) - A land use plan prepared by the BLM under current regulations in accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act.
Right-of-Way - A permit or an easement that authorizes the use of public lands for specified purposes, such as pipelines, roads, telephone lines, electric lines, reservoirs, and the lands covered by such an easement or permit.
Riparian Reserves (RR) - Designated riparian areas found outside Late-Successional Reserves.
Riparian Zone - Those terrestrial areas where the vegetation complex and microclimate conditions are products of the combined presence and influence of perennial and/or intermittent water, associated high water tables, and soils that exhibit some wetness characteristics. Normally used to refer to the zone within which plants grow rooted in the water table of these rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, springs, marshes, seeps, bogs, and wet meadows.
Rural Interface Areas (RIA) - Areas where BLM-administered lands are adjacent to or intermingled with privately-owned lands zoned for 1- to 20-acre lots, or areas that already have residential development.
Salable Minerals - High volume, low value mineral resources including common varieties of rock, clay, decorative stone, sand, and gravel.
Seed Orchard - A plantation of clones or seedlings from selected trees; isolated to reduce pollination from outside sources; weeded of undesirables; and cultured for early and abundant production of seed.
Selection Cutting - A method of uneven-aged management involving the harvesting of single trees from stands (single-tree selection) or in groups (group selection) without harvesting the entire stand at any one time.
Seral Stages - The series of relatively transitory plant communities that develop during ecological succession from bare ground to the climax stage. There are five stages:
Silvicultural Prescription - A professional plan for controlling the establishment, composition, constitution, and growth of forests.
Silvicultural System - A planned sequence of treatments over the entire life of a forest stand needed to meet management objectives.
Site Index - A measure of forest productivity expressed as the height of the tallest trees in a stand at an index age.
Site Preparation - Any action taken in conjunction with a reforestation effort (natural or artificial) to create an environment that is favorable for survival of suitable trees during the first growing season. This environment can be created by altering ground cover, soil, or microsite conditions through using biological, mechanical, or manual clearing, prescribed burns, herbicides, or a combination of methods.
Skyline Yarding - A cable yarding system using one of the cables to support a carriage from which logs are suspended and then pulled to a landing.
Slash - The branches, bark, tops, cull logs, and broken or uprooted trees left on the ground after logging.
Smoke Management - Conducting a prescribed fire under suitable fuel moisture and meteorological conditions with firing techniques that keep smoke impact on the environment within designated limits.
Snag - Any standing dead, partially-dead, or defective (cull) tree at least l0 inches in diameter at breast height (dbh) and at least 6 feet tall. A hard snag is composed primarily of sound wood and is generally merchantable. A soft snag is composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration; generally not merchantable.
Special Areas - Areas that may need special management, such as management as an ACEC, RNA, environmental education area, or other special category.
Special Forest Products (SFP) - Firewood, shake bolts, mushrooms, ferns, floral greens, berries, mosses, bark, grasses, and other forest material that could be harvested in accordance with the objectives and guidelines in the proposed resource management plan.
Special Recreation Management Area (SRMA) - An area where a commitment has been made to provide specific recreation activity and experience opportunities. These areas usually require a high level of recreation investment and/or management. They include recreation sites, but recreation sites alone do not constitute SRMAs.
Special Status Species - Plant or animal species falling in any of the following categories:
Species Diversity - The number, different kinds, and relative abundance of species.
Split Estate - An area of land where the surface is nonfederally owned and the subsurface mineral resources are federally owned or vice versa.
Stand (Tree Stand) - An aggregation of trees occupying a specific area and sufficiently uniform in composition, age, arrangement, and condition to make it distinguishable from the forest in adjoining areas.
Stand Density - An expression of the number and size of trees on a forest site. May be expressed in terms of numbers of trees per acre, basal area, stand density index, or relative density index.
State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) - The state official authorized to act as a liaison to the Secretary of the Interior for purposes of implementing the National Historic Preservation Act of l966.
State Implementation Plan (SIP) - A state document required by the Clean Air Act. It describes a comprehensive plan of action for achieving specified air quality objectives and standards for a particular locality or region within a specified time, as enforced by the state and approved by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Stream Order - A hydrologic system of stream classification based on stream branching. Each small unbranched tributary is a first order stream. Two first order streams join to make a second order stream. Two second order streams join to form a third order stream and so forth.
Structural Diversity - Variety in a forest stand that results from layering or tiering of the canopy and the die-back, death, and ultimate decay of trees. In aquatic habitats, the presence of a variety of structural features (such as logs and boulders) that create a variety of habitat.
Succession - A series of dynamic changes by which one group of organisms succeeds another through stages leading to potential natural community or climax. An example is the development of a series of plant communities (called seral stages) following a major disturbance.
Suitable Commercial Forest Land - Commercial forest land capable of sustained long-term timber production.
Suitable River - A river segment found through administrative study by an appropriate agency to meet the criteria for designation as a component of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers system, as specified in Section 4(a) of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act.
Threatened Species - Any species defined through the Endangered Species Act as likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range and published in the Federal Register.
Timber Management Plan - An activity plan that specifically addresses procedures related to the offering and sale of timber volume consistent with the approved allowable sale quantity.
Timber Production Capability Classification (TPCC) - The process of partitioning forest land into major classes indicating relative suitability to produce timber on a sustained yield basis.
Transportation System - Network of roads used to manage BLM-administered lands. Includes BLM-controlled roads and some privately-controlled roads. Does not include Oregon Department of Transportation, county, and municipal roads.
Treatable Water - Water capable of being treated with commonly used filtration and chlorination systems.
Uneven-aged Management - A combination of actions that simultaneously maintains continuous tall forest cover, recurring regeneration of desirable species, and the orderly growth and development of trees through a range of diameter or age classes. Cutting methods that develop and maintain uneven-aged stands are single-tree selection and group selection.
Unique Ecosystems - Ecosystems embracing special habitat features such as beaches and dunes, talus slopes, meadows, and wetlands.
Unnecessary or Undue Degradation - Surface disturbance greater than what would normally result when an activity is being accomplished by a prudent operator in usual, customary, and proficient operations of similar character and taking into consideration the effects of operations on other resources and land uses, including those resources and uses outside the area of operation. Unnecessary and undue degradation may involve failure to initiate and complete reasonable mitigation measuresincluding reclamation of the disturbed area, creation of a nuisance, or failure to comply with applicable environmental protection statutes and regulations.
Utility Corridor - A linear strip of land identified for the present or future location of utility lines within its boundaries.
Viable Population - A wildlife or plant population that contains an adequate number of reproductive individuals to appropriately ensure the long-term existence of the species.
Visual Resource Management (VRM) - The inventory and planning actions to identify visual values and establish objectives for managing those values and the management actions to achieve visual management objectives.
Visual Resource Management Classes - Categories assigned to public lands based on scenic quality, sensitivity level, and distance zones. There are four classes. Each class has an objective that prescribes the amount of modification allowed in the landscape.
Water Quality - The chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water.
Wetlands or Wetland Habitat - Those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally includebut are not limited toswamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.
Wet Meadows - Areas where grasses predominate. Normally waterlogged within a few inches of the ground surface.
Wild and Scenic River System - A national system of rivers or river segments that have been designated by Congress and the President as part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System (Public Law 90-542, 1968). Each designated river is classified as one of the following:
Wilderness Study Area (WSA) - A roadless area that has been inventoried and found to be wilderness in character, has few human developments, and provides outstanding opportunities for solitude and primitive recreation, as described in Section 603 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act and in Section 2(c) of the Wilderness Act of l964.
Wildlife Tree - A live tree retained to become future snag habitat.
Withdrawal - A designation that restricts or closes public lands from the operation of land or mineral disposal laws.
Woodland - Forest land producing trees not typically used as saw timber products and not included in calculation of the commercial forest land ASQ.
Yarding - The act or process of moving logs to a landing.