Coos Bay Record of
Decision and Resource Management Plan
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Coos Bay Record of Decision
Coos Bay District Resource
Management Plan Table of Contents:
Appendix D. Best Management
Practices for Maintaining Water Quality and Soil
The Best Management Practice (BMP) concept used in
this Resource Management Plan (RMP) is designed to
protect water quality, enable the achievement of water
quality standards, and maintain soil productivity. The
concept was developed and initiated in federal water
quality legislation, with the focus of implementation at
the state level. The Oregon Department of Environmental
Quality (DEQ) has granted Designated Management Agency
status to the BLM, making BLM responsible for
implementing BMPs on the lands it administers. The BLM is
also guided by the Clean Water Act of 1972 as amended in
1977 and 1987, state of Oregon water quality legislation
(chapter 340), and the O&C Act. These BMPs are
designed to comply with standards of the Oregon Forest
Practices Act. Also, in the RMP, there are management
actions/direction specific to all land use allocations
The RMP will utilize a mix of conservation practices
such as those identified in this appendix or their
equivalent. Together, these practices will become the BMP
design for a project. The soil and water protection
measures described below are types of controls that will
be used to maintain water quality and to protect soil
productivity and dependent beneficial uses.
The iterative process used in selecting and
implementing nonpoint controlsincluding
BMPsto achieve water quality standards includes:
- Design of BMPs based upon site-specific
conditions; technical, economical, and
institutional feasibility; and the water quality
of those waters potentially impacted.
- Monitoring to ensure that practices are properly
designed and applied.
- Monitoring to determine the effectiveness of
practices in meeting water quality standards and
the appropriateness of water quality criteria in
reasonably assuring protection of beneficial
- Adjustment of BMPs when water quality standards
are not being protected to a desired level and/or
possible adjustment of water quality standards
based upon considerations in 40 CFR 131.
BMPs revised through the iterative process of
monitoring and adjustment are expected to lead to
achievement of water quality standards. The following
list of conservation practices are more specific than,
and in addition to, the Management Action Direction
contained in the RMP. The conservation practices are not,
however, intended to be all inclusive nor replace
site-specific project planning, which may require the use
of different or additional conservation practices.
||Maintain water quality within State Water
Quality Standards and Clean Water Act
||Meet the objectives of the Aquatic
Conservation Strategy described in the RMP.
||Manage soil productivity at or above natural
||Use the watershed analysis planning process
as a means of identifying initial sets of
conservation practices on watersheds 20-200
square miles in size that could be used for
future activities in a BMP design.
Conservation Practices for Soil and Water Planning
||An interdisciplinary (ID) team, including a
soil scientist and/or a hydrologist, will review
all proposed activities that have potential to
adversely impact soil or water. Soil and water
protection will be an integral part of all plans.
If necessary, plan modification or additional
mitigation will be used to keep impacts to an
acceptable minimum, while not adversely affecting
aquatic conservation strategy objectives.
||Watershed restoration planning will be done
with watershed analysis to improve impaired
watershed function and water quality. An
inventory and implementation schedule will be
developed as funds become available.
||A floodplain and wetland evaluation will be
completed prior to any land acquisition, disposal
by sale or exchange, or where development or
alterations of wetlands may occur.
||Construction in, or change of, floodplains
and wetland character will not occur when there
is a viable alternative that avoids these
important lands, unless done for enhancement
||Community and noncommunity domestic supply
watersheds will be managed for multiple use, but
with a special emphasis on protection of water
quality consistent with state standards and the
Aquatic Conservation Strategy.
||Pesticide applications used for growing,
harvesting, and protecting forest tree species
will conform with the Aquatic Conservation
Strategy and the BMPs identified in the ROD for
the Western Oregon Program - Management of
||To avoid water contamination, care will be
taken in siting of temporary camps and also
proper waste disposal procedures will be used.
||Following wildfires, a rehabilitation plan
will be developed using the ID team process.
Site-specific information will be collected and
treatments will be developed based on soils,
water, and downstream values.
||A plan for responding to hazardous substance
spills will be developed and updated annually for
spill prevention and control.
||Ongoing activities may be interrupted or
halted at the discretion of the District Manager
or Area Manager for soil and water protection
Conservation Practices for Streams and Riparian
||Riparian Reserves would be
designated along all streams, lakes, ponds, and
other waterbodies for attainment of the Aquatic
||Watershed analysis will precede
forest activities in a Riparian Reserve except
those categorically excluded under NEPA.
||Naturally-occurring down logs or
trees will not be removed from Riparian Reserves
except for the benefit of the stream or Riparian
Reserve. Potentially floatable debris that may be
mobilized during infrequent floods and may
reasonably damage downstream users' improvements
may be removed after watershed analysis.
||Timber will be
directionally-felled or line-pulled away from
perennial streams or Riparian Reserves when
harvesting within a tree length of either, except
to enhance stream structure by felling trees into
||Stream crossings will be
minimized and located where channels are
well-defined, unobstructed, and straight.
Crossings will be designed to minimize soil
erosion, stream sedimentation, and adverse
impacts on aquatic habitat.
||The use of heavy equipment in
streams will be restricted to that area necessary
for correct installation of crossing structures,
water source development, watershed restoration,
or fisheries enhancement projects.
||When possible, streams will be
diverted around construction sites where fishery
or other important stream values are present.
||Culverts or pipe arches placed
on valuable fish streams will be at zero to 0.5
percent or natural stream grade.
||Energy dissipation material will
be placed on fills around the inlet and outlet
||Filling, material removal, or
channel relocation will not be allowed in
fish-bearing streams (except for stream
restoration projects) unless no other alternative
||Instream habitat improvement
structures will be designed using state-of-art
techniques and to be in balance with local stream
||Low water fords will be used
only as a last resort, and then during the driest
time of the year with minimum streambank
disturbance. Rocked approaches and erosion
control practices will be used during and
following any use of fords. The pre-existing
stream channelincluding bed and
bankswill be restored after need for the
maintenance, fuel storage, or other handling of
petroleum products will not occur in Riparian
||Placer mining claimants will be
required to obtain all necessary federal and
state operating permits before beginning work.
Conservation Practices for Road and Landing
||Road and landing construction
activities will be limited to the dry season,
generally from June into October.
||Roads and landings will be
designed and constructed to BLM standards, but be
the narrowest and smallest sizes that will still
meet safety standards, objectives of anticipated
uses, and resource protection.
||Roads and landings will be
located out of Riparian Reserves to the extent
possible. Unless construction is under existing
reciprocal road right-of-way agreements,
watershed analysis will precede location of any
new roads or landings that must occur in a
||Roads will be located on stable
locations as much as possible (e.g., ridge tops,
stable benches or flats, and gentle-to-moderate
side-slopes). Grades will be rolled (varied) to
maintain stable locations. Headwalls, old slump
benches, seeps, and side slopes in excess of 65
percent will be avoided as much as possible.
Heights of cutbanks will be minimized and
balanced earthwork will be used.
||Road construction will be
avoided as much as possible on slopes where
geologic bedding planes are inclined with the
||The theoretical 100-year flood
will be used as design criteria for all culverts,
bridges, and other stream crossings, including
allowance for bed load and debris. Stream
crossings will be constructed with low diversion
||To minimize sidecasting of waste
material, 100 percent end-haul (90 percent or
greater actual) will be required where roads and
landings must be located on side slopes exceeding
60 percent. On all road segments requiring
end-haul, a tracked excavator will be preferred
for pioneering and main excavation work. Other
equipment capable of achieving this goal may be
utilized. Pioneer work will be confined to
within-roadway construction limits.
||Stable end-haul (waste) sites
will be located prior to end-hauling. These sites
will be kept properly shaped, drained, and
||Controlled blasting techniques
that minimize the amount of soil/rock displaced
from the road location will be used.
||Only soil and rock materials
will be used in fills. Organic materials will not
be used. Fills will be compacted between 85 and
95 percent maximum density. Light-weight fills
consisting of chips, bark, or other material may
be used in areas where rotational slumps have
potential to cause road failures.
||Road drainage will be designed
to minimize soil erosion and stream
sedimentation. Energy dissipators, culvert down
pipes, or drainage dips will be used where water
is discharged onto loose material and onto
erodible or steep slopes.
||Road surface shape (e.g.,
crowning, insloping, and outsloping) that meets
planned use and resource protection needs will be
||New roads to be included in the
permanent road system will normally have a rock
surface applied. Those new roads having a natural
surface (generally roads in Curry County) may
have the dirt surface seeded, mulched, and
||New roads not included in the
permanent road system will be restored on
completion of use. The road surface will be
seeded and mulched, stream crossings restored,
and the road generally blocked from further use.
These roads may also be decommissioned through
use of a winged ripper during the driest part of
||Following use of landings that
have side slopes exceeding 60 percent, all soil,
rock, and cull woody debris material that has
been pushed over the edge will be pulled back to
a stable part of the landing surface.
||Soil erosion control work will
be completed the same season disturbance occurs
and using the district seed mix. Seed and
fertilizer will be applied during the optimum
time for establishment and prior to winter rains,
primarily September 1 to October 30, and
secondarily March 15 to May 15.
||Drainage and soil erosion
control practices will be applied to renovated or
reconstructed roads in the same manner as
||Road maintenance activities will
be planned to minimize soil erosion and
subsequent stream sedimentation. Heavy equipment
will be used to clean ditches at necessary
intervals. Undercutting of backslopes will be
avoided. Bare soil created by maintenance
activities will be protected from soil erosion as
soon as possible.
||Sloughed cutbank materials will
not be sidecast onto slopes greater than 60
percent, nor into or near drainages. This
material will be end-hauled to a stable site.
||Low-growing, herbaceous ground
cover and brush will be retained on cut-and-fill
slopes unless it poses a safety hazard.
||Permanent, effective drainage
will be provided on roads that are closed but not
totally reclaimed. Waterbars, dips, or outsloping
will be used; culverts and bridges will be
removed; and the natural drainway re-established.
Conservation Practices for Timber Harvest
||Timber sale units
will be designed to minimize adverse impacts on
soils and water. The sale contract will contain
stipulations for protection or mitigation. All
Riparian Reserves, perennial and intermittent
streams, and other water features will be shown
on planning and contract maps.
Riparian Reserves will be avoided unless there is
no reasonable alternative. The location, number,
and width of corridors will be specified prior to
yarding, and natural openings will be used as
much as possible. Not more than 250 feet of
yarding corridors would be allowed within any
1,000 feet of stream. Maximum corridor width will
be 50 feet, and corridors will be at least 50
feet apart. Full log suspension will be used
preferably with partial log suspension, will be
the preferred standard method for log yarding on
all district lands.
capable of at least partial log suspension will
be required to yard all lands inventoried as FGR1
and FGR2 in the TPCC system.
||Aerial systems or
skyline cable systems capable of full log
suspension will be utilized when feasible to yard
all lands inventoried as FGR2 in the TPCC system.
restrictions will be used in some areas where the
desired log suspension cannot be achieved.
will be avoided unless used to prevent additional
or difficult road or landing construction.
||If tractors or rubber-tired
skidders are used for log skidding, skid trails
will be designated with the objective of having
less than 12 percent of a harvest area affected
by compaction. Existing skid roads will be used
to the extent practical.
||Tractors or rubber-tired
skidders will be restricted to slopes of less
than 35 percent and used only during the driest
part of the year, typically mid-July to
||Other ground-based yarding
systems (e.g., spider-walkers and feller
bunchers) may be used on slopes over 35 percent,
provided the expected growth-loss effect is
insignificant and skid trails involve less than
12 percent of the harvest area.
||Following use, skid roads not
needed for future entries will be ripped at the
optimum time, using a winged subsoiler and the
land will be returned to timber production
||Skid trails needed for future
entries will have erosion control and drainage
measures applied between usage.
||Drainage and erosion control
measures, including water barring of skid trails,
will be applied to bare soil areas following use
and prior to winter rains.
Conservation Practices for Silvicultural
open water and wetlandswill be protected
during fertilizer application. Buffers at least
100 feet wide will be planned along all flowing
streams that have domestic use, support
fisheries, or have other important uses. Riparian
Reserve buffer widths will be planned around
lakes and ponds. Application will be avoided
during heavy rain or when wind speed could cause
drift. Storage, transfer, and loading sites will
be located away from streams and outside Riparian
||Where burning is necessary for
site preparation, site-specific prescriptions
will be used.
||Burning prescriptions will be
strictly adhered to on highly sensitive soils.
These soils include: shallow, rocky soils on 70
percent or greater slopes with south or west
aspect, located out of the "fog belt";
and the same kinds of soils on extremely steep
(80 percent or greater), and north and east
aspects in the drier parts of the district.
||As much large, down, woody
material will be left onsite as possible while
still meeting site preparation needs. Gross
yarding will be used on steep headwalls and deep
V-shaped draws to decrease or break up logging
debris concentrations, reduce fire intensity, and
minimize potential debris torrent damage. The
need for, and amount of, gross yarding will be
determined by site-specific watershed analysis.
Old embedded logs or other logs that contribute
to bank stability will not be removed.
||Where machine piling of logging
debris is used, first preference will be given to
low ground pressure backhoe/loader/grapple type
equipment. If conventional tractor piling is
used, brush blades will be required and piling
will be done under strict soil and water
protecting constraints. Any machine piling will
be done during the driest part of the year, and
compacted areas would be tilled with properly
||Use of tractors for fireline
construction will be limited as much as possible,
and tractors will be restricted to slopes less
than 35 percent. Tractor-constructed fire trails
will be waterbarred.
||Grass/legume seeding of units
may be done to protect highly erosive soils
following burning. This will be coordinated and
reconciled with wildlife and silvicultural