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Lincoln County Archaeological Initiative (LCAI) Update

Updated 3/5/13

Round 1

Inventory, Evaluation and Management Assessment of Known Rock Art Sites on BLM Managed Lands in Lincoln County, Nevada 
This project is a three year inventory and assessment project for rock art sites on BLM administered land in Lincoln County. Over the three years, all known rock art sites will be visited and recorded at a baseline level sufficient to allow site stewardship and assessed for condition and management needs. Digital and paper copies of all records will be provided to the BLM and the SHPO archives and an annual report will be produced that details the activities for the year, assesses progress, and identifies problems or issues requiring agency action. After each field season, a public presentation on the results of the work will be given at a regional venue. 

Oral Histories and Place Making Practices among the Paiute and Shoshone of Lincoln County: A Cultural Landscape of the Mormon Mountains 
This two phase project is to identify and record oral histories and place making practices of Numic-speaking peoples associated with unique archaeological resources in the Mormon Mountains. This general goal will be met through the ethnographic evaluation of nine petro glyph and pictograph sites through interviews of Paiute and Shoshone cultural representatives with traditional knowledge. The final ethnographic report will provide in-depth ethnographic evaluations of the nine archaeological sites, digital photographs, and maps that situate each petro glyph and pictograph area within the context of cultural landscapes. Results also will be presented at professional meetings. Complete

Continuation of Lincoln County Rock Art Documentation Project 
This project will complete on-going documentation of previously selected rock art sites on BLM administered land in Lincoln County. Fieldwork will document 50 rock art panels and involve taking photographs of each panel, recording UTM coordinates for each panel at each site, amending existing IMACS forms and compiling the work into a report for each site. Complete

Nomination for Archaeological Research and Management at Three Obsidian Quarries in Lincoln County, Nevada 
This project will conduct fieldwork and analysis that will yield baseline data on the character, density, and distribution of tools and debris at three obsidian quarries (Modena, Kane Springs, and Tempiute) on land administered by the BLM. Deliverables will be a detailed report of activities with maps and NRHP forms for each obsidian source, scholarly and popular articles on the research, and presentation at regional and national venues. Local presentations during the field research are also proposed.  Complete 

Research Design for Obsidian Hydration Chronology-building in Lincoln County 
This project is an obsidian hydration dating rate derivation feasibility study and the preparation of a research design. The design will outline the specific sampling strategies, field studies, and analysis of existing archaeological collections that could contribute to establish temperature-dependent obsidian hydration rate formulas for the various obsidian sources within Lincoln County that were used for stone tools by native people. The project would involve a literature review, field visits to non-quarry sites and quarry areas, assessment of exiting archaeological collections of obsidian artifacts, and the preparation of the research design. Deliverables are the research design and updates to IMACS forms with digital photographs for those sites subject to field visits. Complete

Archeological Site Condition Monitoring, Unauthorized Use Reporting, Incident Investigations, and Preliminary Damage Assessments in Lincoln County 
This project will sustain the current program of archaeological site threat and condition monitoring with a professionally led corps of volunteer site stewards in Lincoln County. The project establishes a Lincoln County Site Steward Coordinator to oversee and expand all aspects of the site stewardship program. In general, this project would increase the number of site stewards and conversely the number of cultural resources monitored, involve active public interpretive programs and training, and provide for the investigation and documentation of unauthorized impacts to sites. 

NVCRIS Research Enhancements and database Verification 
This project was cancelled due to a majority of this proposal’s deliverables being accomplished through other funding avenues.  Cancelled 

Round 2

Historic Mining District Inventory, Evaluation, Protection and Management with Specific Emphasis on Panaca Kilns, Fay, and Deer Lodge
This project will document and evaluate the archaeological resources at the Panaca Charcoal Kilns and the two primary residential areas associated with the Eagle Valley Mining District, Fay and Deer Lodge, and to provide management recommendations for these early historic locales. These places, like other historic mining related areas, are popular with visitors. Visitation can lead to the inadvertent destruction of fragile resources or vandalism. A Class III archaeological inventory will be conducted at all three locations as well as an architectural inventory of existing structures. High quality archival photographs will be included in the documentation. Monitoring the condition of the mining sites will be accomplished through repeat photography at established photo points. Deliverables will include a technical report on the inventories that includes detailed discussions of the condition of the resources, recommendations regarding National Register eligibility, and recommendations for short and long-term protection measures as well as the standard requirements for inventory project reports. Public involvement will be achieved through web-based materials, a tri-fold brochure on the history of each location, and a poster that will be distributed to Lincoln County and nearby schools, local and state historical societies, and to museums. Complete

Formative (Fremont) Settlement Inventory in Lincoln County, Nevada: Conduct Class III Inventories and Evaluation of Areas at Risk due to Current or Predicted Increased Public Use
This project will conduct Class III archaeological inventories to identify Formative sites in eastern and southern Lincoln County. The goals and context for this project are similar to Proposal #3, emphasizing at risk locations of Formative sites. However, projects #3 and #5 will be conducted in different geographic areas by different contractors. Research questions to be addressed by this proposal relate to the age of Formative period occupations in the area, the Formative economic adaptations, and Formative ceramic data. Also, this project will involve trained volunteers in the fieldwork. The deliverables are a Class III inventory report including recommendations for National Register eligibility and the public dissemination of the information through web-based materials and presentation of results at the Great Basin Anthropological Conference. Complete

Formative (Fremont) Settlements Inventory and Educational Outreach in Lincoln County, Nevada
This project will conduct a Class III archaeological inventory of 1,000 acres to document Formative (Fremont) sites in areas where prehistoric land use and current population impacts overlap. Formative sites tend to be located in lowland areas near well-watered drainages due to the horticulture practiced by these ancient people. These places are the same locations where future impacts are most likely from recreation and development. The nature and extent of the Fremont occupation of eastern Nevada is not well understood and this project is a targeted approach to finding and detailing local variability. The identification and documentation of these resources, coupled with an evaluation of their eligibility to the National Register of Historic Places, will clarify the future management needs for Formative sites. Deliverables will include a Class III archaeological inventory report; a web-based public-oriented downloadable document available to the general public that can be linked to schools and other interested groups; and a brochure to direct people to the web site. Complete

Survey and Conditions Assessment of 10 Spots with Rock Art Habitation Sites on Public Lands in Lincoln County, Nevada
This project will record and assess the condition of 10 high-profile habitation sites that contain rock art. These sites are well known to the public and receive frequent visitation as a result of information available on the internet or from recent exposure by the media or popular rock art publications. An archaeological inventory will be conducted for a three-acre parcel surrounding each site. In addition, there will be an assessment of the current condition and integrity of the pictographs/petroglyphs and the subsurface habitation deposits. The deliverable is an inventory and conditions assessment report with recommendations for protective measures to reduce on-going impacts to these sites. The data also will provide a baseline for site stewardship monitoring activities. Presentations on this work will be given to local interest groups and at professional meetings.

Cultural Resources Digital Data Clean Up for Lincoln County, Nevada
This project will work to enhance the Nevada Cultural Resource Information System (NVCRIS) for Lincoln County. NVCRIS is the Nevada state-wide spatial database of archaeological sites and inventories that is managed by the State Historic Preservation Office. It provides a restricted access, Geographic Information System data-hub for cultural resources information. The purpose of this proposal is to verify the existing archaeological data for Lincoln County and update the database. This effort is needed because the initial data digitization was not comprehensive and included some errors inherent in the documents used to generate the digital information. When this work is completed, Lincoln County land managers can be confident in the NVCRIS archaeological data, resulting in improved resource management practices to preserve and protect archaeological resources. Deliverables include monthly reports on work progress and a revised and current archaeological database for Lincoln County.

Documentation, Analysis, and Evaluation of the Rock Shelters of Evergreen Flat, Lincoln County, Nevada

This is a three-year program to conduct investigations at seven rock shelters and archaeological deposits in southern Lincoln County. These locations have suffered various levels of vandalism and were not fully recorded prior to the impacts. The purpose of the project is to review the data from the vandalism investigation, fully record these sites and their environs, and conduct in-field analysis of the extant archeological data at each site. Fieldwork will include involvement by site stewards and other volunteers and the results will be shared through public presentations. The final report, besides presenting the formal archaeological results of this work, will develop a baseline for site monitoring and include recommendations for site protection and stabilization.

Round 3

Protection of Lincoln County Archaeological Collections Housed at the Desert Research Institute
This project will inventory, upgrade and analyze the archaeological collections and field records that were excavated from the important archaeological sites of O’Malley Shelter, Conaway Shelter, the Scott Site and rock shelters in Stine Canyon.

Archaeological Research at Sites Described in Ethnographic and Historic Literature
This project will conduct ethnographic and historical research combined with pedestrian cultural resource inventory of the Quinn Canyon Massacre site. Initially an intensive pre-field literature review will be conducted with an attempt to identify informants for pre-field contemporary ethnographic data collections. A detailed research context for the cultural resources identified in existing records will be developed. In addition, a study of the cultural resources records and literature prior to conducting a field inventory will be conducted that will cover approximately 1,330 acres, including the massacre site and adjacent areas. All cultural resources identified during the inventory will be evaluated for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. The final documentation will include recommendations regarding protection and management of the cultural resources. Lectures/presentations during Nevada Archaeological Awareness and Historic Preservation month as well as participation at the Las Vegas Springs Preserve Culture History Fair with a booth and poster will be presented. Complete

Lincoln County Archaeological Collections Inventory and Upgrade
This project will inventory, stabilize and rehabilitate physical collections, site records, reports and other paper documentation that were collected by the BLM from Lincoln County lands. These collections are housed at the Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies’ Cultural Resources Program in Las Vegas, NV. There currently are artifacts and records from 114 archaeological sites, in Lincoln County, housed at the Center. Complete

Inventory and Assessment of Lincoln County Historic Cemeteries
This project will conduct a one-year long program of inventories of historic cemeteries on federal land in Lincoln County. This proposal will fund an inventory and condition assessment of cemeteries selected in consultation with BLM personnel to meet BLM’s management concerns and will make recommendations for measures to protect and preserve the cemeteries.  Local descendants, community members, and other persons interested in historic cemeteries of Lincoln County will be contacted, and heritage tourism materials to support public outreach will be developed. Complete

Inventory and Evaluation of Historic Transportation Systems for the National Register of Historic Places
This project will focus on transportation features at risk from urban expansion and public use. A multi-phase approach within a broader, county-wide context will be utilized. The project begins with the compilation of historic documents and a historic context that serves as a historic transportation base and outlines a framework by which all transportation features may be evaluated for National Register significance. As historic transportation layers are built, at risk areas can be identified and prioritized. Complete

Inventory and Evaluation of Four Historic Cemeteries in Lincoln County
This project will inventory four specific cemeteries in Lincoln County. These cemeteries include Fay, Bristol Wells, Helene and Delamar, all of which are on public land. The inventory will include a review of the existing cultural resource documentation and historical archival records for each site, on-site recording of the cemeteries, and preparation and submission of a cultural resources technical report. Complete

Round 4

Delamar Lake Sample Survey to Identify At Risk Pleistocene Sites
This project will inventory Paleo-Archaic archaeological sites on BLM managed land near Delamar Lake. Paleo-Archaic sites are the oldest known sites in the Great Basin and often occur near Pleistocene age lakebeds, such as Delamar Lake. The purpose of this project is to acquire data that will facilitate the preservation, protection, and management of these significant resources.

Intepretive and Public Use Site Plan for the Black Canyon Archaeological District, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada 
This project will develop and finalize an interpretive and public use site plan for the Black Canyon Archaeological District on the Pahranagat Wildlife Refuge. This use plan will be based on a recent 400-acre archaeological survey that recorded 148 petroglyph panels among 37 archaeological sites. The purpose of the site management plan is to inform visitors of the cultural significance of the area and, at the same time, reduce degradation of the sites and habitat through infrastructure.

Inventory, Evaluation and Management Assessment of the Gathering Petroglyph Site 
This project will inventory and evaluate rock art site commonly known as “The Gathering.” The Gathering site probably contains as many as 300 rock art panels, making it one of the largest rock art sites in Lincoln County and in Nevada. The purpose of the project is to record the rock art panels at a detailed level along with associated artifacts and features, and to conduct condition assessments of individual rock art panels.

Interpretation of Select Rock Art Sites in the White River Narrows National Register District
This project will create educational materials for five rock art sites located within the recently recorded White River Narrows National Register District. The five sites identified for interpretation form a natural interpretive loop and are frequently visited by the public because they are adjacent to State Route 318, can be driven to in a car, and their locations are available on the internet.

Obsidian Toolstone Inventory, Evaluation, Protection and Management 
This project will develop a hydration chronology for primary obsidian sources in Lincoln County that can be used to relatively date obsidian artifacts at archaeological sites. The purpose of this project is to develop a sensitive hydration chronology for the primary obsidian sources by creating a relative obsidian chronology based on associated datable artifacts, such as ceramic styles and arrowhead types.

Obsidian Crossroads: An Archaeological Investigation of the Panaca Summit/Modena Obsidian Source in Lincoln County, Nevada 

This project will conduct an archaeological inventory on BLM managed land of selected portions of the Panaca Summit/Modena obsidian source area and collect obsidian nodules for geo-chemical studies. This project will produce information about prehistoric utilization of obsidian sources, the distribution of archaeological sites associated with obsidian flows, and contribute much needed detailed data on the variability of obsidian chemical signatures.

A Class III Cultural Resources Inventory and Management Plan of Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Lincoln County, Nevada 
This project will conduct an archaeological inventory of 33,000 acres within the Mount Irish, Pahroc Rock Art, and Shooting Gallery Areas of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC). This project will help with the understanding of site distribution within each ACEC and site data will provide the information needed to construct realistic resource management plans at a future date.

Round 5 

Educational Outreach for Archaeological Awareness in Lincoln County, Nevada
This project will prepare a comprehensive three-part packet of information for public education about Lincoln County and Southern Nevada’s archaeology with an emphasis on the need to preserve and protect these resources for future generations. A presentation will be made available to area teachers and a Public Service Announcement will be distributed to Nevada radio stations. Three to five public lectures and three to five media interviews will be presented to local schools and media.

Understanding the Rock Art of Lincoln County 
This project will provide an educational program of six free workshops and public lectures to promote increased awareness, protection, and preservation of Lincoln County prehistoric archaeological heritage. The workshops and lectures will be held in Alamo and Caliente, aimed at educators and the public. The workshops will include one day of classroom instruction on the archaeology and rock art of Lincoln County and the Great Basin, followed by a one-day visit to at least two rock art localities, ending with an evening lecture open to the public.
Public Interpretation of Select Rock Art Sites in the Mount Irish Archaeological District 
This project will create educational materials, a brochure, and webpage for eight rock art sites in the Mount Irish Archaeological District. The brochure will include a general description of rock art and the area’s natural and cultural history, a description of each site with pictures, an explanation of unique characteristics, and interpretive information.
Formative Period Occupations in Northwest Lincoln County: Interpreting Settlement Patterns Using Class III Inventory Data and Geomorphic Visibility 
This project will inventory and evaluate Formative period sites in the Quinn Canyon Range, Sand Spring Valley, and the Worthington Mountains to characterize Formative period occupations in northwestern Lincoln County. The information obtained will facilitate recommendations for preservation and management of the cultural resources. The results will be presented to the public in Archaeological Awareness Month activities and to the archaeological community in conference presentations and pamphlets.
A Shotgun Sequencing Approach to Clarifying Fremont and Shoshonean Settlement and Chronology Using Obsidian and Ceramic Artifacts in Lincoln County, Nevada  
This project will study widely distributed small archaeological sites in order to refine the understanding of prehistoric settlement patterns in Lincoln County. This is an innovative approach to archaeological interpretation and should yield interesting results on an often ignored data set. The fieldwork will collect and analyze obsidian and ceramic artifacts, two types of artifacts that should provide reliable information to date the occupations at the small sites. The final analysis will compare the distribution of obsidian and pottery types.
Cultural Resources Inventory for Paleo-Archaic Sites within Kane Springs Valley and Dry Lake Valley, Lincoln County, Nevada  
This project will conduct a sample inventory for archaeological sites associated with the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition period in Lincoln County. The purpose of the inventory is to test an existing model of human settlement during the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition and establish baseline inventory data for managing Pleistocene-aged cultural resources in Kane Springs Valley and Dry Lake Valley in Lincoln County. Public outreach will include: 1) presentations to public groups, such as the Nevada Archaeological Association, Lincoln County historical societies, and amateur archaeological associations; 2) preparing a volume on the work for Lincoln County area libraries, tribal governments, and interested citizen associations; 3) involving non-professional volunteers, students, and tribal members during fieldwork, when possible; and, 4) preparing and presenting peer-reviewed articles at professional meetings. 
Re-evaluate Site Significance and Update Formative/Fremont Site Records in Lincoln County Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 
This project will update old, outdated site records and re-evaluate National Register significance for Formative/Fremont sites in Lincoln County. The research will focus on sites recorded during early pioneering surveys conducted between 1967 and 1978. The study area will provide wide spatial coverage in Lincoln County. It is divided into four regions that include Pahranagat Valley, Delamar Valley, Lower Meadow Valley Wash, and Wilson Creek Range. Fifteen sites will be re-evaluated. Public outreach efforts will include a professional poster to be presented at conferences and presentations on the Formative Culture at two public schools in Lincoln County.

Round 6

Proposals for Round 6 have been evaluated and ranked. The results will be posted when funding has been approved and awarded. This is anticipated to be in the Fall of 2013.

Round 7

Priorities for Round 7 are now being developed. The BLM will be accepting proposals for this Round from approximately September 1, 2013 through October 31, 2013.

Last updated: 03-06-2013