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East Lynn Lake Acronyms

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

-A-
ALUA/ROD East Lynn Lake Coal LeaseApproved Land Use Analysis / Record of Decision
AMS - analysis of the management situation

-B-
BAE - biological assessment and evaluation
BLM - US Bureau of Land Management(Department of the Interior)

-C-
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations
CEQ - Council on Environmental Quality

-D-
DEIS - draft environmental impact statement
DLUA/DEIS - draft land use analysis/environmental impact statement
DOI - Department of the Interior

-E-
EIS - environmental impact statement
EPA - US Environmental Protection Agency
ESA - Endangered Species Act

-F-
FCLAA - Federal Coal Lease Amendments Act
FEIS - final environmental impact statement
FLPMA - Federal Land Policy and Management Act
FOIA - Freedom of Information Act
FR - Federal Register
FWS - US Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior)

-H-
HU - hydrologic unit
HUC - hydrologic unit code
HUD - US Department of Housing and Urban Development

-L-
LBA -
lease by application
LRMP - Land and Resource Management Plan
LUA/EIS - land use analysis/environmental impact statement

-M-
MLA - Mineral Leasing Act of 1920
MSHA - US Mine Safety and Health Administration (Department of Labor)

-N-
NAAQS - national ambient air quality standards
NAS - no action scenario
NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act
NGOs - non-governmental organizations
NOI - notice of intent
NRCS - US Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly USSCS)

-O-
OSM - US Office of Surface Mining(Department of the Interior)

-P-
PETS - proposed, endangered, threatened and sensitive species
PLUA/FEIS - East Lynn Lake Coal Lease Proposed Land Use Analysis and Final Environmental Impact Statement

-R-
RFFD - reasonably foreseeable future developments
RFDS - reasonably foreseeable development scenario
RMP - resource management plan
ROD - record of decision

-S-
SHPO - State Historic Preservation Office
SMCRA - Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

-T-
T&E - threatened and endangered(species)

-U-
US - United States
USACE - US Army Corps of Engineers (Department of the Army)
USFS - US Forest Service (Department of Agriculture)
USGS - US Geological Survey (Department of the Interior)
USSCS - US Soil Conservation Service (Department of Agriculture), now see NRCS

-V-
VRM - visual resource management
VQO - visual quality objective

-W-
WRDA - Water Resources Development Act
WVDEP - West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection
WVDNR - West Virginia Division of Natural Resources

East Lake Lynn Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

-A-

affected environment– In the NEPA process, the area that will be affected or created by the alternatives under consideration.

airshed– A geographic area that shares the same air.

alluvial– Pertaining to material or processes associated with transportation and deposition by concentrated running water.

analysis of the management situation (AMS)– The process where the District or Area Manager analyzes the inventory data and other information available to determine if there is adequate basis to respond to the identified issues and opportunities. The analysis of the management situation provides the basis for formulating reasonable alternatives, consistent with multiple use principles, including the types of resources for development or protection. The factors to be considered are given in 43 CFR 1610.4-4.

aquaticand riparian-associated species - Species that may use a variety of habitats, but that disproportionately make use of aquatic or riparian areas during at least one stage of their life cycle.

aquifer– A body of rock that is saturated with water or transmits water. When people drill wells, they tap water contained within an aquifer.

-B-

best management practice (BMP)– One or more practices designed to prevent or reduce pollution or another negative effect on a resource.

biological assessment (BA)– Information prepared by, or under the direction of, a federal agency to determine whether a proposed action is likely to: (1) adversely affect listed speciesor designated critical habitat; (2) jeopardize the continued existence of species that are proposed for listing; or (3)adversely modify proposed critical habitat.

biological diversity – The variety of life in an area, including the variety of genes, species, plant and animal communities and ecosystems, and the interaction of these elements. See habitat diversity. The term is often abbreviated to biodiversity.

buffer– An area of land between two separate and distinct land use regimes, which can serve to modify the effects of one land use on the other.

Bureau of Land Management (BLM)– The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), an agency of the U.S. Department of the Interior, is responsible for the health, diversity, and productivity of the 258 million surface acres of public lands. BLM manages its public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations.

-C-

candidate species– Plant and animal taxa considered for possible addition to the List of Endangered and Threatened Species. These are taxa for which the Fish and Wildlife Service has on file sufficient information on biological vulnerability and threat(s) to support issuance of a proposal to list, but issuance of a proposed rule is currently precluded by higher priority listing actions.

climate– The characteristic weather of a region, particularly temperature and precipitation, averaged over some significant interval of time.

collaboration– a cooperative process in which interested parties, often with widely varied interest, work together to see solutions with broad support for managing public lands.

colluvial– Pertaining to material or processes associated with transportation and/or deposition by mass movement (gravitational action) and local, unconcentrated runoff on side slopes and/or at the base of slopes.

competitive federal coal leaseBLM regulations establish policies and procedures to promote the timely and orderly development of publicly owned coal resources; to ensure that coal deposits are leased at their fair market value; and to ensure that coal deposits are developed in consultation, cooperation and coordination with the public, state and local governments, Indian tribes, and involved Federal agencies. The steps involved are: issuing public notices, soliciting information from the public and coal companies, preparing a land use plan and EIS, providing opportunities for public participation and agency coordination, public review and protest, hearings, a governor’s review, and an open competitive leasing process. The leasing process is described in the BLM regulations found at 43 CFR 3420.
consumptive use– Use of a resource that reduces its supply, such as logging, mining, and water use. Contrast with non-consumptive use.

contour– A line drawn on a topographic map connecting points of the same elevation.

cooperating agencies– For this project, USACE and OSM are both cooperating agencies and will be actively involved in the analysis and LUA/EIS preparation. A cooperating agency assists the lead federal agency in developing an EIS. THE CEQ regulations implementing NEPA define a cooperating agency as any agency that has jurisdiction by law or special expertise for proposals covered by NEPA (40 CRF 1501.6). Any federal, state, local government jurisdiction with such qualifications may become a cooperating agency by agreement with the lead agency.

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)– An advisory council to the President, established by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The CEQ reviews federal programs for their effect on the environment, conducts environmental studies, and advises the President on environmental matters.

critical habitat– Areas formally designated for the survival and recovery of federally listed threatened or endangered species.

cultural resource– The remains of sites, structures, or objects used by people in the past; they can be identified as historical or pre-historic.

cumulative effect– Effect on the environment that results from the incremental effect of the action when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency (federal or non-federal) or person undertakes such other actions. Cumulative effects can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time.


-D-

decision criteria– The rules and standards used to evaluate alternatives to a proposed action on National Forest System land. Decision criteria are designed to help a decision-maker identify a preferred choice from the array of alternatives.

disturbance– Any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community or population structure; and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment.

draft land use analysis and environmental impact statement (DLUA/DEIS)– The draft version of an Environmental Impact Statement that is released to the public and other agencies for review and comment.


-E-

ecology– 1. The interrelationships and interconnectedness of living things to one another and to their environment. 2. The study of these interrelationships and interconnections.

ecoregion– An area over which the climate is sufficiently uniform to permit development of similar ecosystems on sites that have similar properties. Ecoregions contain many landscapes with different spatial patterns of ecosystems.

endangered species– A plant or animal species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Endangered species are identified by the Secretary of the Interior/Secretary of Commerce in accordance with the Endangered Species Actof 1973.

environmental analysis– 1. An analysis of actions and their predictable long and short-term environmental effects. Environmental analyses include consideration of physical, biological, social, and economic factors. 2. A general term that could refer to an environmental assessment or an environmental impact statement.

environmental impact statement (EIS)– A disclosure statement revealing the environmental impacts of a proposed action, which is required for major federal actions under Section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act. A draft EIS is released to the public and other agencies for review and comment. The statement provides full and fair description of significant environmental impacts and informs the decision maker and the public of the reasonable alternatives, which would avoid or minimize adverse impacts or enhance the quality of the human environment.


-F-

federally listed species(PET species)– See listed PET species.

floodplain– 1. The nearly level plain that borders a stream and is subject to inundation under flood-stage conditions unless protected artificially. It is usually a constructional landform built of sediment deposited during overflow and lateral migration of streams. 2. At a minimum, an area subject to a one percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.


-G-

geochemistry– the study of the chemical species, reactions, and processes in soils and rocks and their interactions with atmosphere, surface water, and groundwater.

geographic information system (GIS)– 1. A database designed to handle geographic data. 2. A set of computer operations that can be used to analyze geographic data. Also referred to as computerized mapping.

geomorphology– The science that deals with the relief features of the earth's surface.

goal– In planning, a concise statement that describes a desired future condition to be achieved with no specific date by which it is to be attained. It is normally expressed in broad, general terms. Goal statements form the principal basis from which objectives are developed.

groundwater– The supply of fresh water under the earth's surface in an aquifer or in the soil.

guidelines– actions or management practices that may be used to achieve desired outcomes, sometimes expressed as best management proactics. Guidelines may be identified during the lang ude planning process, but they are not considered a land use plan decision unless the plan specifies tha they are mandatory.


-H-

habitat– The physical and biological environment for a plant or animal species in which all the essentials for its development, existence, and reproduction are present.

heritage resources– The remains of sites, structures, or objects used by people in the past; this can be historical or pre-historic.

hydrologeology– The science that deals with subsurface waters and with related geologic aspects of surface waters.

hydrologic balance– The relationship between the quality and quantity of water inflow to, water outflow from, and water storage in a hydrologic unit (e.g., drainage basin, watershed aquifer, soil profile, lake, or reservoir). The term encompasses the dynamic relationships among precipitation, runoff, and changes in ground and surface water storage.

hydrology– The science dealing with the study of water on the surface of the land, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.


-I-

implementation plan– an area or site-specific plan written to implement decisions made in a land use plan.

in-stream flow– Refers to the presence of stream flow adequate to maintain the integrity of the stream channel and protection of downstream beneficial uses such as fish and wildlife habitat needs, recreational uses of water, and livestock watering needs.

irretrievable impact– A category of impact in the National Environmental Policy Act to be analyzed in environmental impact statements. Refers to commitments that are lost for a period of time. For example, while an area is used as a developed recreation site, some or all of the timber production there is irretrievably lost. If the recreation area closes, timber production could resume; the loss of timber production during the time that the area was devoted to developed recreation is irretrievable. However, the loss of timber production during that time is not irreversible, because it is possible for timber production to resume if the area is no longer used as a recreation area. Contrast with irreversible impact.

irreversible impact– A category of impact in the National Environmental Policy Act to be analyzed in environmental impact statements. Refers to commitments that cannot be reversed, except perhaps in the extreme long term. For example, once coal has been removed, it will not be replaced within any measurable time period. Contrast with irretrievable impact.

issues – Areas of unresolved conflict concerning management of the National Forest.


-K-

karst– Topography characterized by sinkholes, caves, and streams that disappear underground. It results from the action of surface and underground water in soluble rock such as limestone.


-L-

land and resource management plan (LRMP) – The document that guides the management of a particular national forest and establishes management standards for all lands controlled by that national forest.

land use analysis(LUA) –

landslide– 1. A general term for a mass movement landform. Types of landslides include creep, rock slides and falls, earthflows, debris flows, and avalanches. 2. A process characterized by downslope movement or transport, by means of gravitational stresses, of a mass of soil, rock and other debris that may or may not be water saturated.

listed species– Refers to one or more species listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as endangered (E), threatened (T) or proposed for federal listing as threatened or endangered (P). Also referred to as PET species, or a subset of the species defined as PETS species.


long-term effects– Those effects, which will usually occur beyond the next ten years.


-M-

main – Main haulage drift.

management decision – a decision made by BLM to manage public lands. Management decisions include both land use plan decisions and implementation decision.

mitigation– Collective actions taken to avoid, minimize, or rectify the negative impact of a land management practice.

monitoring – process of tracking the implementation of land use plan decisions and collecting and assessing data/information necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of land use planning decisions.

Multi-jurisdictional planning – collaborative planning in which the purpose is to address land use planning issues for an areas, such as an entire watershed or other landscape unit, in which there is a mix of public and/or private land ownerships and adjoining of overlapping Tribal, state, local government, or other federal agency authorities.


-N-

National Historic Landmark– Cultural properties designated by the Secretary of the Interior as being nationally significant. These cultural properties may be buildings, historic districts, structures, sites, and objects that possess exceptional value in commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States.

National Natural Landmark (NNL)– A nationally significant site designated by the Secretary of the Interior because it represents one of the best remaining examples of particular ecological or geological resources. Within Daniel Boone National Forest, Red River Gorge Geological Area is a National Natural Landmark.

National Register of Historic Places– The official federal list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects significant in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture.

native species– Any species native to a given land or water area by natural occurrence.

natural resource– A feature of the natural environment that is of value in serving human needs.

NEPA process– Based on the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, to insure that environmental information is available to public officials and citizens before decisions are made and before actions are taken. The NEPA process is intended to help public officials make decisions that are based on understanding of environmental consequences, and take actions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment.

no action scenario (NAS)– A required alternative in an EIS or EA, it describes the most likely condition expected to exist in the future if management practices cease or continue without change. Provides a basis (point of reference) for describing the environmental effects of the proposed action and other alternatives.

non-consumptive use– The use of a resource that does not reduce its supply. For instance, bird watching is a non-consumptive use of a wildlife resource. Boating and fishing are non-consumptive uses of water resources. See consumptive use.

non-game species– Any species of wildlife or fish that is ordinarily not managed or otherwise controlled by hunting, fishing, or trapping regulations.

non-native species– An introduced species that evolved elsewhere, and that has been transported and disseminated purposefully or accidentally.

non-point source pollution– Pollution of the air or water from diffuse sources and which cannot be traced to a single point of origin. For example, air pollutants result from power plants, vehicle emissions and other widespread activities. Water pollutants result from agriculture, forestry, urban, mining, and construction projects, and are generally carried off the land by storm water runoff into waterways.

non-renewable resource– A resource whose total quantity does not increase measurably over time, so that each use of the resource diminishes the supply.

notice of intent (NOI)– A notice in the Federal Register that an environmental impact statement will be prepared and considered.


-O-

objective– In planning, a concise, time-specific statement of measurable planned results that respond to pre-established goals. An objective forms the basis for further planning to define the precise steps to be taken and the resources to be used in achieving identified goals. Objectives can be quantified and measured and, where possible, have established timeframes for achievement.

outstanding mineral rights– The rights to extract subsurface minerals that are retained by the owner of those minerals, when ownership of the surface of the land (by another party) is transferred to the federal government.


-P-

Pennsylvanian age– A period of the Paleozoic era thought to have covered the span of time between 320 and 280 million years ago.

PETS species– The inclusive group of federally Proposed, Endangered and Threatened species, and Sensitive species as identified by a Regional Forester..

planning analysis– a process using appropriate resource data and NEPA analysis to provide a basis for decisions in areas not yet covered by a resource management plan (RMP).

planning criteria– the standards, rules, and other factors developed by managers and interdisciplinary teams for their use in forming judgments about decision making, analysis, and data collection during planning. Planning criteria streamline and simplify the resource management planning actions.

porosity– The ratio of the volume of voids in the soil to the total volume of the mass or solids, expressed as a percentage.

pre-existing useA land usethat may not conform to a current zoning ordinance but which existed prior to the enactment of the ordinance.

productivityThe ability of an area to provide goods and services or to function ecologically.

property line1. A land ownership division line between two parcels of land. 2. A separation of real property rights.

proposed action

public involvementIn planning, the use of appropriate procedures to inform the public, obtain early and continuing public participation, and consider the views of interested parties in planning and decision making.

public landLand for which title and control rests with a government, at the federal, state, regional, county, or municipal level.


-R-

reasonably foreseeable development scenario (RFDS) – describes the development expected if the proposed action is approved.

rechargeThe addition of water to ground water by natural or artificial processes.


Record of Decision (ROD)In planning, the official document in which a deciding official states the alternative that will be implemented from a prepared environmental impact statement.

recreation opportunities – Use of public lands for leisure activities. Areas provided may have either constructed facilities with amenities for publc convenience (developed recreation opportunites) orfeature primitive settings providing isolation, challenge, and risk (dispersed recreation opportunities).

rehabilitationThe process of repairing damage done to the ecosystem or a part of it, such that natural processes will again function in the repaired system. Contrast with restoration.

reserved mineral rightsThe rights to extract subsurface minerals that are retained by a landowner, when ownership of the surface of the land is transferred to the federal government. Basic standards for conducting mineral operations are inserted into the deed held by the private

revegetation – The re-establishment and development of a plant cover by either natural or artificial means, such as re-seeding.

riparian area  –  A three-dimensional ecotoneError! No bookmark name given.Error! No bookmark name given. of interaction between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, which extends down into the groundwaterError! No bookmark name given., Error! No bookmark name given.up above the canopy, outward across the floodplainError! No bookmark name given., Error! No bookmark name given.up the near-slopes that drain to the water, laterally into the terrestrial ecosystemError! No bookmark name given.Error! No bookmark name given., and along the watercourse at a variable width.

runoff  –  The portion of precipitation that flows over the land surface or in open channels.


-S-

scoping  –  In planning, the ongoing process to determine public opinion, receive comments and suggestions, and determine issues during the environmental analysis process.  Scoping involves public meetings, telephone conversations, letters, or other communication methods.

sensitive species  –  Those plant and animal species identified by a Regional Forester for which population viability is a concern, as evidenced by (1) significant current or predicted downward trends in population numbers or density; or (2) significant current or predicted downward trends in habitat capability that would reduce a species' existing distribution.

Sensitive species  –   The BLM State Director-designated sensitive species as outlined in BLM Manual 6840.

short-term effects –  In planning, those effects that usually occur within ten years.

significant heritage resource  –  An archeological site or historic property that meets the criteria for eligibility for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places.

slope stability  –  The susceptibility of a slope to erosion and landslides.

soil mapping unit  –  A collection of individual soil areas or miscellaneous areas delineated in a soil survey and identified on a map by a unique symbol.  Comparable map units in adjoining survey areas are similar.

soil quality  –  1.  A soil's inherent or "natural" capacities to perform its functions to sustain productivity.  2. The capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality and promote plant and animal health.

Special status species  – includes proposed species, listed species, and candidate species under the Endangered Species Act; state-listed species; and the BLM State Director-designated sensitive species.

soil survey  –  The systematic examination, description, classification, and mapping of soils in an area.

spring  –  A water source located where water begins to flow from the ground due to the intersection of the water table with the ground surface.  Springs generally flow throughout the year. 

standard  – a description of the physical and biological conditions or degree of function required for health, sustainable lands.  To be expressed as a desired outcome (goal).

strike and dip  –  A geological phrase used to describe fault planes.  Strike is the direction or trend taken by a structural surface, e.g. a bedding or fault pane, as it intersects the horizontal.  Dip is the angle that a structural surface, e.g. a bedding or fault plane, makes with the horizontal, measured perpendicular to the strike of the structure and in the vertical plane.

submain – Tributary haulage drift.

subsidence  – Ground subsidence is the sinking of the land over man-made or natural underground voids.. Several types of natural processes as well as human activity may produce ground subsidence. In general, the type and severity of surface subsidence depends on the amount ground surface and the location of removal or compression, and the geologic conditions of a particular site. Removal of support by underground mining is a common cause of ground subsidence. Extensive removal of coal and other materials may leave large underground voids. Natural processes such as fracturing, caving, ground water flow often cause surface subsidence, fissures, and/or tilting of the land surface above and/or adjacent underground workings. Mine-induced changes in the hydrology of the underground workings and/or overlying rock and soil materials can affect subsidence.

suitability analysis  –  


-T-

threatened species  –   A plant or animal species likely to become endangered throughout all or a specific portion of their range within the foreseeable future, as designated by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Commerce under the Endangered Species Act of 1973.

toe slope  –   The hill slope position that forms the gently inclined surface at the base of a hill slope.


topographic  –   1.  Pertaining to topography.  2. A type of map that indicates topographic contours.

topography  –   The general configuration or shape of the earth’s surface, including its relief or elevation, and the position of its natural features.


-U-

use, allowable  –   An estimate of proper range use.  Forty to fifty percent of the annual growth is often used as a rule of thumb on ranges in good to excellent condition.  It can also mean the amount of forage planned to accelerate range rehabilitation

unsuitability criteria  –  


-V-

visual quality objective  –   An obsolete term used in scenery management to identify a set of measurable goals for the management of forest visual resources.

visual resource  –   A part of the landscape important for its scenic quality.  It may include a composite of terrain, geologic features, or vegetation.


-W-

water table  –   The upper surface of groundwater.  Below the water table, the soil is saturated with water.

water yield  –   The runoff from a watershed, including groundwater outflow.

watershed  –   1.  In general, the entire region drained by a waterway into a lake or reservoir.  2. More specifically, the land above a given point that contributes water to the stream flow at that point.

wetland  –   Area that is inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances does support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions.  Wetlands generally include, for example, swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.


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Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

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Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining

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US Army Corps of Engineers

ELL Project

East Lynn Lake Coal Lease