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On October 26, 2007, the draft CANM Resource Management Plan was made available to the public, and the 90-day public comment period began.
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June 9, 2000
ESTABLISHMENT OF CANYONS OF THE ANCIENTS NATIONAL MONUMENT
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Containing the highest known density of archaeological sites in the Nation, the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument holds evidence of cultures and traditions spanning thousands of years. This area, with its intertwined natural and cultural resources, is a rugged landscape, a quality that greatly contributes to the protection of its scientific and historic objects. The monument offers an unparalleled opportunity to observe, study, and experience how cultures lived and adapted over time in the American Southwest.
The complex landscape and remarkable cultural resources of the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument have been a focal point for archaeological interest for over 125 years. Archaeological and historic objects such as cliff dwellings, villages, great kivas, shrines, sacred springs, agricultural fields, check dams, reservoirs, rock art sites, and sweat lodges are spread across the landscape. More than five thousand of these archaeologically important sites have been recorded, and thousands more await documentation and study. The Mockingbird Mesa area has over forty sites per square mile, and several canyons in that area hold more than three hundred sites per square mile.
People have lived and labored to survive among these canyons and mesas for thousands of years, from the earliest known hunters crossing the area 10,000 years ago or more, through Ancestral Puebloan farmers, to the Ute, Navajo, and European settlers whose descendants still call this area home. There is scattered evidence that Paleo-Indians used the region on a sporadic basis for hunting and gathering until around 7500 BC. During the Archaic period, generally covering the next six thousand years, occupation of the Four Corners area was dominated by hunters and gatherers.
By about 1500 BC, the more sedentary Basketmakers spread over the landscape. As Ancestral Northern Puebloan people occupied the area around 750 A.D., farming began to blossom, and continued through about 1300 A.D., as the area became part of a much larger prehistoric cultural region that included Mesa Verde to the southeast. Year-round villages were established, originally consisting of pit house dwellings, and later evolving to well-recognized cliff-dwellings. Many archaeologists now believe that throughout this time span, the Ancestral Northern Puebloan people periodically aggregated into larger communities and dispersed into smaller community units. Specifically, during Pueblo I (about 700-900 A.D.) the occupation and site density in the monument area increased. Dwellings tended to be small, with three or four rooms. Then, during Pueblo II (about 900-1150 A.D.), settlements were diminished and highly dispersed. Late in Pueblo II and in early Pueblo III, around 1150 A.D., the size and number of settlements again increased and residential clustering began. Later pueblos were larger multi-storied masonry dwellings with forty to fifty rooms. For the remainder of Pueblo III (1150-1300 A.D.), major aggregation occurred in the monument, typically at large sites at the heads of canyons. One of these sites includes remains of about 420 rooms, 90 kivas, a great kiva, and a plaza, covering more than ten acres in all. These villages were wrapped around the upper reaches of canyons and spread down onto talus slopes, enclosed year-round springs and reservoirs, and included low, defensive walls. The changes in architecture and site planning reflected a shift from independent households to a more communal lifestyle.
Farming during the Puebloan period was affected by population growth and changing climate and precipitation patterns. As the population grew, the Ancestral Puebloans expanded into increasingly marginal areas. Natural resources were compromised and poor soil and growing conditions made survival increasingly difficult. When dry conditions persisted, Pueblo communities moved to the south, southwest, and southeast, where descendants of these Ancestral Puebloan peoples live today.
Soon after the Ancestral Puebloans left the monument area, the nomadic Ute and Navajo took advantage of the natural diversity found in the variable topography by moving to lower areas, including the monument's mesas and canyons, during the cooler seasons. A small number of forked stick hogans, brush shelters, and wickiups are the most obvious remnants of this period of occupation.
The natural resources and spectacular land forms of the monument help explain why past and present cultures have chosen to live in the area. The geology of the monument evokes the very essence of the American Southwest. Structurally part of the Paradox Basin, from a distance the landscape looks deceptively benign. From the McElmo Dome in the southern part of the monument, the land slopes gently to the north, giving no indication of its true character. Once inside the area, however, the geology becomes more rugged and dissected. Rising sharply to the north of McElmo Creek, the McElmo Dome itself is buttressed by sheer sandstone cliffs, with mesa tops rimmed by caprock, and deeply incised canyons.
The monument is home to a wide variety of wildlife species, including unique herpetological resources. Crucial habitat for the Mesa Verde nightsnake, long-nosed leopard lizard, and twin-spotted spiny lizard can be found within the monument in the area north of Yellow Jacket Canyon. Peregrine falcons have been observed in the area, as have golden eagles, American kestrels, red-tailed hawks, and northern harriers. Game birds like Gamble's quail and mourning dove are found throughout the monument both in dry, upland habitats, and in lush riparian habitat along the canyon bottoms.
Section 2 of the Act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225, 16 U.S.C. 431), authorizes the President, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated upon the lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United States to be national monuments, and to reserve as a part thereof parcels of land, the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected.
WHEREAS it appears that it would be in the public interest to reserve such lands as a national monument to be known as the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument:
NOW, THEREFORE, I, the President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by section 2 of the Act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225, 16 U.S.C. 431), do proclaim that there are hereby set apart and reserved as the Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, for the purpose of protecting the objects identified above, all lands and interests in lands owned or controlled by the United States within the boundaries of the area described on the map entitled "Canyons of the Ancients National Monument" attached to and forming a part of this proclamation. The Federal land and interests in land reserved consist of approximately 164,000 acres, which is the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected.
All Federal lands and interests in lands within the boundaries of this monument are hereby appropriated and withdrawn from all forms of entry, location, selection, sale, or other disposition under the public land laws, including but not limited to withdrawal from location, entry, and patent under the mining laws, and from disposition under all laws relating to mineral leasing, other than by exchange that furthers the protective purposes of the monument, and except for oil and gas leasing as prescribed herein.
For the purpose of protecting the objects identified above, the Secretary of the Interior shall prohibit all motorized and mechanized vehicle use off road, except for emergency or authorized administrative purposes.
Lands and interests in lands within the proposed monument not owned by the United States shall be reserved as a part of the monument upon acquisition of title thereto by the United States.
Because most of the Federal lands have already been leased for oil and gas, which includes carbon dioxide, and development is already occurring, the monument shall remain open to oil and gas leasing and development; provided, the Secretary of the Interior shall manage the development, subject to valid existing rights, so as not to create any new impacts that interfere with the proper care and management of the objects protected by this proclamation; and provided further, the Secretary may issue new leases only for the purpose of promoting conservation of oil and gas resources in any common reservoir now being produced under existing leases, or to protect against drainage.
The Secretary of the Interior shall prepare a transportation plan that addresses the actions, including road closures or travel restrictions, necessary to protect the objects identified in this proclamation.
The Secretary of the Interior shall manage the monument through the Bureau of Land Management, pursuant to applicable legal authorities, to implement the purposes of this proclamation.
The establishment of this monument is subject to valid existing rights.
Nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed to enlarge or diminish the jurisdiction of the State of Colorado with respect to fish and wildlife management.
This proclamation does not reserve water as a matter of Federal law. Nothing in this reservation shall be construed as a relinquishment or reduction of any water use or rights reserved or appropriated by the United States on or before the date of this proclamation. The Bureau of Land Management shall work with appropriate State authorities to ensure that any water resources needed for monument purposes are available.
Nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed to enlarge or diminish the rights of any Indian tribe.
Laws, regulations, and policies followed by the Bureau of Land Management in issuing and administering grazing permits or leases on all lands under its jurisdiction shall continue to apply with regard to the lands in the monument.
Nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed to affect the management of Hovenweep National Monument by the National Park Service (Proclamation 1654 of March 2, 1923, Proclamation 2924 of May 1, 1951, and Proclamation 2998 of November 26, 1952).
Nothing in this proclamation shall be deemed to revoke any existing withdrawal, reservation, or appropriation; however, the national monument shall be the dominant reservation.
Warning is hereby given to all unauthorized persons not to appropriate, injure, destroy, or remove any feature of this monument and not to locate or settle upon any of the lands thereof.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this ninth day of June, in the year of our Lord two thousand, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-fourth.
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BLM INTERIM MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR ALL NATIONAL MONUMENTS
Adhere to direction in the President's Proclamation:
With the exception of oil and gas leasing, Federal lands and interests in lands within the monument are withdrawn from all forms of entry, location, selection, sale, leasing, or other disposition under the public land laws, including among others the mineral leasing and mining laws.
Valid existing rights will be recognized.
The State's responsibilities and authorities regarding wildlife management, including fishing and hunting, within the monument are unaffected by the Proclamation.
Grazing activities shall continue to be governed by applicable laws and regulations other than the Proclamation.
Existing withdrawals, reservations, or appropriations are not revoked, but the monument is the dominant reservation.
Maintain existing management policies, designations, and allocations except where changes are necessary to comply with the Proclamation and protect the objects of scientific and historic interest within the monument.
Provide the public with prompt and accessible information on questions regarding the use of federal lands within the monument. Coordinate with the State, Tribes, and other governmental entities (under existing agreements and any new arrangements deemed necessary) to disseminate and exchange information and cooperate in management actions, consistent with applicable legal authorities and other directives.
Assure the applications, proposals, and future use requests pending when the Proclamation was issued are subject to the terms of the Proclamation, including its recognition of valid existing rights, and other management directives and decisions relate to the monument.
Consider land or easement acquisitions and land exchanges that will enhance the values of the monument.
All existing planning documents related to the monument lands should be reviewed for consistency with the Proclamation. Consistent with NEPA and FLPMA, the plans should be modified or a new plan created for the monument that addresses all resource issues in the Proclamation.
DISCUSSION OF SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES:
In general, actions that are not precluded by the Proclamation and which do not conflict with the established purposes of the monument may continue. Allowed activities can be restricted only where (1) the BLM, through processes required by existing law, identifies places where such uses ought to be restricted or prohibited as necessary to protect the federal lands and resources, including the objects protected by the monument designation; or (2) where the BLM finds a clear threat from such a use to the federal lands and resources, including the objects protected by the monument designation and the circumstances call for swift protective action.
Livestock Grazing: Livestock grazing within the monument will continue to be permitted, pursuant to the terms of existing permits and leases. Appropriate grazing management practices should be followed to protect rangeland resources and to ensure compliance with BLM Colorado's Standards for Public Land Health and Guidelines for Livestock Grazing. Enforcement actions against trespassers or other violators continue to be authorized.
Animal Damage Control: Modify existing agreements with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection service (APHIS) animal damage control, specifically targeting individual predators rather than predator populations.
Camping: Dispersed recreational camping may continue consistent with current policies and practices and the Proclamation. Developed BLM camping facilities, if any, should be maintained and rehabilitated as appropriate, consistent with monument purposes.
Facilities: Maintenance of existing facilities should be permitted, subject to compliance with current policies and practices, provided monument resources are protected. Applications for new facilities may be considered, if they will protect or enhance monument resources.
Hunting and Fishing: Coordinate with the State to ensure public safety, specifically if there are areas of increased visitor use.
Mineral Activities (including hardrock, oil, gas, and coal): With the exception of oil and gas leasing, the Proclamation reserved and appropriated all federal lands and interests in lands within the monument and withdrew them from all forms of entry, location, selection, sale, leasing, or other disposition under the public land laws, including the mineral leasing and mining laws. Thus, with the exception of oil and gas leases, no new federal mineral leases will be issued within the monument, and authorization for activities on existing mineral leases will be governed by valid existing rights. As to hardrock minerals, no new mining claims can be located, and no new prospecting or exploration activities can be undertaken to identify locatable minerals or to establish the discovery of valuable mineral deposits. Plans of operation for mining operations are not to be approved unless the Department has finally determined the validity of the mining claims and mill sites covered by the plan.
Noxious Weeds/Exotic Species: Existing noxious weed control activities should continue. Exotic species should not be introduced, unless doing so is essential to control noxious weeds or other undesirable species.
Off-Road Vehicles: For the purpose of protecting the objects identified in the Proclamation, no areas in the monument will be authorized for cross-country, off-road vehicular use, except for authorized administrative and emergency purposes. Motorized and mechanical vehicular use will be allowed only on designated roads or routes. Existing limitations and closures will be retained, Management discretion should be exercised where necessary, through emergency closures or other actions, to protect monument resources.
Paleontological Resources and Rock Collection: The collection of specimens will not be permitted, except where intended for legitimate scientific uses for which documentation is provided to the satisfaction of the responsible management official.
Rights-of-Way: No new rights-of-way or ancillary public facilities should be processed, except for rights-of-way pursuant to existing policies and practices and necessary for access to private or state inholdings.
Roads: In general, improvements should be minimal and designed solely to correct those conditions that are unsafe or hazardous. Activities that maintain, as opposed to enhance, existing roads may be permissible.
Scientific, Archaeological, and Historical Investigations: These investigations are important to increase our understanding of the monument's resources.
Signs and Interpretation: Provide appropriate signs at monument boundaries and post other relevant information as needed. Initiate actions to interpret monument resources and values and provide environmental education to visitors on important topics (i.e., visitor safety and resource protection).
Surface Disturbance and Reclamation Activities under Current Permits: These activities should proceed consistent with current permits. Permit extensions may be considered subject to consistency with applicable policies and procedures, only if consistent with monument purposes.
Vegetation Manipulation: Chaining and other methods that cause substantial surface disturbance shall not be permitted.
Wilderness Study Areas: Where applicable, maintain the non-impairment standard for wilderness study areas, per FLPMA, to prevent undue and unnecessary degradation of resources.
Activities on Non-monument Lands: Activities on non-monument lands that are causing, or expect to cause water quality deterioration, soil degradation, or other damage to monument lands - whether directly or indirectly - must be reported to the responsible management official.
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COLORADO STATE DIRECTOR'S GUIDANCE ON INTERIM MANAGEMENT
The following direction supplements the 1985 San Juan/San Miguel Resource Management Plan and the 1986 Anasazi Area of Critical Environment Concern Management Plan and provides interim management guidance for the Monument until long term guidance is finalized through completion of the Management Plan.
COOPERATION AND CONSULTATION:
Public Involvement - All interested publics, both local and national, will have opportunity for input into all significant decision making, including all aspects of the development of the Management Plan. The plan will be prepared in close consultation with appropriate federal, state, tribal, county and local agencies.
Advisory Committee - In accordance with the Secretary’s directive, a charter for a Canyons of the Ancients National Monument Resource Advisory Committee will be prepared by October 1, 2000.
Management Plan and Time Frame - A comprehensive management plan will be initiated by January 1, 2001, and completed through a final Record of Decision by December 2003. A pre-plan will be completed and approved by the State Director (SD) by December 1, 2000, to identify existing data and data needed to complete the Monument Management Plan. Arrange with National Training Center for a survey to determine readiness for community partnership training.
Partnerships - The area will be managed in concert with local citizens and volunteers, building on the tradition of local stewardship of the area.
Coordination with Tribal Interests - Consult and coordinate closely with affected tribes in developing the comprehensive Management Plan and management plans for the cultural and natural resources of the area. Assure that activities do not negatively impact tribal uses and access to places of traditional cultural or religious importance. Monument staff will conduct face-to-face meetings, including all interested tribes in a group setting in Montezuma County, as well as meeting one-on-one with tribal representatives in tribal offices.
Anasazi Heritage Center (AHC) Role - Serves as the repository for all collections and records generated from scientific, paleontological, archeological, and historical investigations in the Monument. Serves as a museum/visitor center providing informational, educational and interpretive products for visitors to the Monument. Provides technical guidance to the monument manager on research, interpretation and educational needs. The AHC will continue to provide services to all of southwest Colorado, as well as the United States Forest Service and Bureau of Reclamation.
Scientific, Archeological and Historical Investigations - These investigations are important to increase our understanding of the Monument’s resources. They may proceed consistent with current policies and practices, except that surface disturbance must be minimal with an emphasis on the use of existing archaeological collections and records. Consultation with Native American representatives will be an integral part of the permit review and authorization process.
Cultural Resource Baseline Data and At Risk Areas - A compilation and analysis of all available cultural resource data and literature will be completed by December 15, 2000 to provide an informed basis for understanding cultural resources within the Monument and to provide immediate protection for cultural resources at risk. Current policies and procedures will be used to collect, document and maintain data, records and maps and to issue appropriate inventory and excavation permits.
An ethnographic study for the Monument will be completed by December 1, 2001, to establish cultural affiliation between contemporary Native Americans and the Monument landscape, and to identify tribal concerns and interests inside the Monument.
Land Health Assessments - will be completed by December 15, 2001.
Paleontological Resources - The collection of any paleontological resources, including common invertebrates and fossil wood, will not be permitted, except where intended for legitimate scientific uses for which documentation is provided to the satisfaction of the responsible management official. Scientific use will allow for survey/reconnaissance or limited excavation work with a minimum amount of surface disturbance and will be conducted under a paleontological permit.
Vehicular Travel - The area will be closed to cross-country, off-road travel by motorized vehicles and mechanized vehicles, including mountain bikes, to reduce inadvertent damage to cultural resources. Established roads and trails will remain open to use as presently authorized. A complete inventory of roads and trails will be completed by December 15, 2000. Monitoring of natural and cultural resources will be initiated in critical locations to determine if resources are being damaged by vehicle use. Emergency closures will be initiated prior to completion of the management plan only if significant resource damage is documented. Final decisions on designated routes for vehicular travel, including mountain bikes, will be established through the Management Plan. No new roads or trails will be developed pending completion of the Management Plan.
Right-Of-Way Grants - No new rights-of-way or ancillary facilities will be processed, except for rights-of-way pursuant to existing policies and practices and necessary for access to private or state inholdings.
Special Recreation Permits - No new commercial permits will be issued, nor will any expansions of existing permits be granted. Permits may be adjusted during the interim period if unacceptable resource impacts are occurring.
Livestock Grazing - is permitted, pursuant to the terms and conditions of existing permits and leases. Appropriate, best management practices will be followed to protect rangeland resources, and where necessary, to mitigate any conflicts with other Monument uses and values. Administrative actions will be implemented under existing regulations to assure compliance with existing permit/lease requirements, monitoring and supervision of grazing use, and enforcement of unauthorized use.
Livestock, Watershed and Wildlife Developments - Maintenance of existing projects can occur in the same general manner and degree as they have been in the past. New projects will only be constructed where detailed National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 assessment demonstrates that they would not have an adverse impact on monument resources protected by the proclamation. Nonstructural alternatives will be implemented whenever possible in lieu of structural projects.
Animal Damage Control - will only be conducted with SD approval when: (1) the animal control measure targets the specific offending animal(s) and (2) the National Monument manager determines health and safety is not an issue.
Wilderness Study Areas - will continue to be managed under the Interim Management Policy. Monitoring of these Wilderness Study Areas will be a priority and if done on less than a monthly basis when the areas are accessible, an alternative monitoring plan will be approved by the SD.
Water Rights - Bureau of Land Management will begin collecting baseline hydrologic, biologic, and water use information that will be required to make instream flow recommendations to the State of Colorado on streams that flow through the Monument. The same types of information will also be collected to support applications for water rights to support Monument water uses and management purposes, and to manage existing water sources and developments.
Fuelwood and Vegetative Use Permits - Commercial forest products sales will not be permitted. Vegetative use areas for private fuelwood and vegetative use permits will be identified by December 1, 2000. These areas will be limited to previously chained areas to remove dead and down wood and to reduce fuel load and fire hazards. Vegetative uses are an integral part of traditional tribal subsistence activities.
Fire - The goal of fire management will be to manage fuels so as to minimize risk to cultural resources. Resource benefit fires will be allowed only where risk to cultural resources is minimal. With firefighter safety as the primary concern, suppression activities will be conducted to protect and generally avoid cultural sites. Mechanized equipment may be used on the ground. However, an archaeologist must be present to ensure that impacts are minimized and cultural sites are avoided whenever possible.
Oil and Gas - Detailed guidance for oil and gas activities is provided separately.
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OIL & GAS LEASING AND DEVELOPMENT: INTERIM MANAGEMENT
Canyons of the Ancients National Monument Proclamation, June 9, 2000: "Because most of the Federal lands have already been leased for oil and gas, which includes carbon dioxide, and development is already occurring, the monument shall remain open to oil and gas leasing and development; provided, the Secretary of the Interior shall manage the development, subject to valid existing rights, so as not to create any new impacts that interfere with the proper care and management of the objects protected by this proclamation; and provided further, the Secretary may issue new leases only for the purpose of promoting conservation of oil and gas resources in any common reservoir now being produced under existing leases, or to protect against drainage."
Monument lands remain open to continued oil and gas (including carbon dioxide) development under existing leases, under current lease restrictions and BLM regulations. The Proclamation also directs the Secretary to manage development, subject to valid existing rights, so as not to create any new impacts that interfere with the proper care and management of the objects protected by the Proclamation. With respect to oil and gas leases, "valid existing rights" vary from case to case, but generally involve rights to explore, develop, and produce within the constraints of the lease terms, laws and regulations.
This provides for continued development of valid existing rights, which allows operators to explore for and develop the oil and gas resources underlying their existing leases. The current APD review process will be utilized and will include a 30 day public review of the proposed decision identified in the environmental assessment. The APD review process should embrace the following:
Surface construction for new well pads, roads, pipelines and associated facilities will be the minimum size for safe operation to preserve Monument values. Use of existing disturbed areas for well locations will be emphasized and will be considered when directional drilling can be shown to be economically and technically feasible and will not impair the conservation of resources from a common reservoir. Locations no longer needed for operations will be reclaimed. All oil and gas operations within the Monument will be made a high priority for surface inspections.
Use the authority of lease stipulations, regulations, and mitigative measures identified through environmental analyses to adopt conditions of approval which promote the objectives of the Proclamation. These measures include, but are not limited to, surveys of proposed construction areas for cultural resources and endangered species; reasonable modifications to siting or design of facilities; control of invasive weeds on all constructed areas; construction practices that will minimize erosion; construction practices and facilities that minimize visual impacts. For more detailed mitigation measures see Appendices D, E, and F of the 1991 Colorado Oil and Gas Development Final EIS and the Shell CO2 EIS.
Existing Rights-of-ways and roads will be employed for new operations as much as possible to avoid impacts that interfere with proper care of Monument resources. Rights-of-ways and roads not needed for other operations, will be reclaimed.
Reclamation will be carried out in accordance with the reclamation requirements contained in the Resource Management Plan, or other applicable and approved plan. Reclamation will emphasize restoration of natural conditions and visual continuity through such measures as the use of native seed and the reconstruction of existing contours. Removed vegetation will be used as mulch over the reclaimed area to protect seed and reduce erosion.
Oil and gas roads not needed for other authorized uses will be gated to protect Monument resources.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Review
BLM will use a NEPA analysis to determine potential impacts on the Monument resources. The NEPA analysis will include a full range of alternatives. In addition to the "No-Action" and "Proposed -Action," alternatives, there will be an alternative to minimize surface disturbance and protect objects of the Monument. The NEPA analysis also assesses the cumulative effects of the proposal on overall Monument resources and management. The analysis will recognize the short term nature of oil and gas operations in the context of the long term nature of the natural and cultural resources environment. NEPA documents
If the analysis indicates no impact to the Monument resources, or indicates impacts to resources, but determines that the impacts are consistent with the Proclamation, the proposed operation can proceed in accordance with applicable regulations, standards and stipulations. If the analysis and documentation indicate that the proposal may have impacts that are not in conformance with the Proclamation, the BLM will work with the applicant to find alternatives or modifications to the proposal that will minimize such impacts through special permit conditions, consistent with applicant’s rights under applicable laws, regulations, and stipulations.
The Proclamation allows new leases to be issued, but only for the purpose of either protecting against drainage, or promoting conservation of oil and gas resources in a common reservoir now being produced under existing leases.
The amount of acreage to be included in any new oil and gas lease will be limited to the amount necessary to resolve the drainage situation or allow proper conservation of the oil and gas resource. BLM will use available reservoir data to determine 40 acre subdivisions contained within the common reservoir or potentially drained area for leasing.
The need for these reservoir management leases will be reviewed by the State Director on a case-by-case basis. As an integral part of the State Director review, a NEPA analysis will be prepared to identify appropriate mitigation for avoiding or minimizing impacts and will include public review and comment.
Permits will be required for all seismic operations. All permits will include inventories and mitigation measures to avoid new impacts that interfere with the proper care and management of the objects protected by the Proclamation. Use of explosives or vibroseis will consider potential impacts to standing walls and structures. Vehicles will use existing roads as much as possible. Off-lease seismic will be permitted only for the purpose of defining the limits of common reservoirs now being produced.
Wilderness Study Areas and Post-FLPMA Leases
The non-impairment standards under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) continue to apply to Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) within the Monument. Existing non-impairment standards and practices will be applied to activities to protect WSA values and to assess proposed actions that may affect wilderness values. (See H-8550-1, Interim Management Policy and Guidelines for Land under Wilderness Review.)
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