BLM Manual 9014 - Use of Biological Control Agents of Pests on Public Lands

Release 9-306, 10/30/90

Table of Contents

.01 Purpose .02 Objectives .03 Authority .04 Responsibility .05 References .06 Policy .07 File and Records Maintenance   .1 Guidelines for Conducting Biological Control Agents Release

.11 Education and Awareness .12 Control Priorities .13 Inventory and Monitoring Procedures .14 Ecological Criteria .15 Coordination .16 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

.2 Transportation Requirements

.3 Insectary Protection, Maintenance, and Collecting

.4 Reporting

Illustrations   1. U.S. Department of the Interior - Biological Control Agent Release Proposal 2. Bureau of Land Management - Biological Control Agent Release Record   Appendix   1. Ecological Criteria for Bio-Agency Control 2. Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Department of the Interior - Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service for the Establishment and Maintenance of Biological Control Agents on Public Lands  

014 - Use of Biological Control Agents of Pests on Public Lands

.01 Purpose. This Manual Section outlines policy, defines responsibilities, and provides guidance for the release, maintenance, and collections of Biological Control Agents for Integrated Pest Management programs on the lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

.02 Objectives. The objective is to provide guidance and procedures for planning and implementing Biological Control in Integrated Pest Management programs. This Manual Section prescribes procedures for transportation, release, maintenance, collection, and recordkeeping.

.03 Authority.

A. Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976.

B. Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1987.

C. Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974.

D. Departmental Manual Parts 611, 612, and 517.

E. Carlson-Foley Act of 1968.

F. Executive Order 11987, Exotic Organisms.

.04 Responsibility.

A. The Director and Deputy Director. The Director formulates the BLM policy within limits set within the above authorities, assuring that the BLM Biological Control Agent Integrated Pest Management program conforms with the Department of Interior policy and legislative mandates. This responsibility is exercised through the Assistant Director, Land and Renewable Resources.

B. The Chief, Division of Forestry. Acting for the Assistant Director, Land and Renewable Resources, the Chief is responsible for overseeing the Integrated Pest Management program of which Biological Control Agents is a part, and he also reviews and monitors the release, establishment, and collection of Biological Control Agents on BLM lands. Additionally, the Chief, Division of Forestry provides technical information, advice, and coordination both inter and intra Department of Interior for the BLM.

C. Other Washington Office Division Chiefs. Other Washington Office Division Chiefs are responsible for coordinating and ensuring specific guidelines are met and providing Integrated Pest Management programs in their area of responsibility.

D. State Directors. State Directors are responsible for ensuring adherence to BLM policy and procedures developed in this Manual Section. The State Director and his immediate State Office staff are solely responsible for approving or authorizing the release, establishment, and collection of Biological Control Agents on BLM lands within his/her state under the concept of the BLM Integrated Pest Management program.

E. Each District Manager. Is responsible for planning and implementing Integrated Pest Management programs utilizing biological control agents within his/her area of responsibility in conformance with existing policy guidelines. The District Manager coordinates and secures from the BLM State Office and State Agencies necessary approvals and authorizations as may be required.

.05 References. (See Departmental Manual Parts 517-Pesticides, 609-Weed Control Program, and 611-Forest Pest Control Program; and BLM Manual Sections 1745-Introduction, Transplant, Augmentations, and Reestablishment of Fish, Wildlife, and Plants, and 1740-Renewable Resource Improvement and Treatment, 5800-Forest Protection and Forest Pest Management, and 9011-Chemical Pest Control.

.06 Policy. Policies governing the use of biological control agents on lands administered by the BLM are set forth below to guide pest management efforts determined as needed to reach management objectives.

A. Encourage the use of parasites, predators, and pathogens in Integrated Pest Management programs to reduce pest organism populations to meet management objectives. This may include domestic livestock to manage vegetation.

B. Participate in cooperative Integrated Pest Management programs in area-wide efforts.

C. Support efforts to develop new biological control agents to the level possible as one of the tools in a balanced Integrated Pest Management program.

D. Collect and quantify all inventory and monitoring data for all pest management efforts and evaluate the success or failure of the program.

.07 Files and Record Maintenance. Establish and maintain files in accordance with BLM Manual Section 1274. Release or redistribution of biological control agents records should be maintained for a minimum of seven years.

.1 Guidelines for Release and Management of Biological Control Agents. Consideration and approval of the use of biological control agents involves many facets of review, monitoring, inventorying, and informing the public of what the BLM intends.

.11 Education and Awareness on the subject of pests, especially noxious weeds, is a facet of any long range management plan within the BLM. Three groups should be targeted for information: the visiting public, local residents, and our own BLM staff. The visiting public needs a clear explanation of the pest problem and information material. Demonstration plots may be established in areas where the general public can easily view and participate when possible.

.12 Control Priorities are the same for biological control agents use as for any Integrated method of control. Prevention strategies are to be employed where feasible and biological control employed after a problem is defined and options explored.

.13 Inventory and Monitoring Procedures should be developed and clarified in the State Integrated Pest Management Plans and environmental analyses. An Inventory of the pest problem should be available for an area prior to the use of biological control agents. Success or failure in survival, control, and spread should be monitored and noted.

.14 Ecological Criteria for proposed released will be evaluated with consideration given to factors on the Appendix I check list.

.15 Coordination is essential prior to release of biological control agents. Coordination encompasses at a minimum, the approval by the State Office of a Biological Control Agent Release Proposal, notification of a planned release to the State agency involved in pest management, and coordination with other involved agencies such as the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) which permits interstate transportation of agents, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) which often is the source of biological control agents, and adjacent landowners. A Memorandum of Understanding exists between BLM and APHIS and also between BLM and ARS which describes the interaction between the two Agencies. (See Appendix 2.)

.16 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is provided for the use of biological control agents release and redistribution by the Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) which performs an environmental analysis prior to permission to release by the interagency Technical Advisory Group on Introduction of Biological Control Agents of Weeds. The BLM will acquire copies of these documents when considering site specific projects for control of pests on lands administered by BLM, and consult with the APHIS State Officer in Charge to determine applicability. The BLM will perform environmental analysis on the impacts of a site specific project.

.2 Transportation of biological control agents across State lines requires a permit from the APHIS which gets concurrence from the receiving State. Contact the receiving State APHIS Officer in Charge to get necessary clearances.

.3 Biological Control Agent Propagation Sites Protection, Maintenance, and Collection should be monitored by the State Director. Prior to initiating projects in an area of the biological control agents, propagation sites, and collection sites, projects should be analyzed for adverse impacts to the continued survival of the insectary.

.4 Reporting of the proposed release, establishment, and collection of biological control agents to the State Director is required. Concurrence of the State Director or his staff is required for proposed releases on the Biological Control Agent Release Proposal (Illustration 1). Notification of the actual release should be reported to the State Directors staff on the Biological Control Agent Release Record (Illustration 2). Collections from these release sites shall be recorded on (Illustration 2), noting the date and number of agents collected. The State Office will maintain a permanent record of all releases and locations.

Illustration 1




PROPOSAL NUMBER ______________

REFERENCE NUMBER______________


BUREAU________ STATE__________ DISTRICT_______________________________

RESOURCE AREA_____________________ COUNTY____________ DATE_________

LEGAL DESCRIPTION: ____________________________________________________


I. Biological Control Agent:

Scientific Name: ____________________________________________________

Common Name: ___________________________________________________

Collection Origin: ___________________________________________________

Stage of Life Cycle: _________________________________________________

Method of Release: _________________________________________________

Aproximate Number of Specimen at Time of Release: _______________________

Release Date(s): ____________________________________________________

Number of Releases: ________________________________________________

What Host Material will Accompany the Agents: ____________________________ ________________________________________________________ _________ ________________________________________________________ _________ ________________________________________________________ _________

II. Pest Species:

Scientific Name: ____________________________________________________

Common Name: ____________________________________________________

Estimated Acres Infested at Release Site _________________Acres

Potential Acres that Could be Infested near Release Site:

BLM Lands ____________ Acres; Other Lands _________ Acres

III. Transfer Permit: Needed ___YES ___NO; Applied___YES ___NO

Received ___YES ___NO; Date Received __________________

IV. Major Desired Plant Species Present: __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________

V. Release Site: (DESCRIBE LAND TYPE OR USE, SIZE, STAGE OF GROWTH OF TARGET SPECIES, SLOPE AND SOIL TYPE). _____________________________________________________________ ______________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________ _____________________________________________________________ _______________

ESTIMATED ACRES_______________


VI. Sensitive aspects and precautions: (DESCRIBE SENSITIVE AREAS [E.G., MARSH, ENDANGERED SPECIES HABITAT] AND DISTANCE TO TREATMENT SITE. LIST MEASURES TO BE TAKEN TO AVOID IMPACT TO SENSITIVE AREAS). _____________________________________________________________ ______________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________

VII. Steps taken to ensure that release sites are protected from the use of pesticide that would harm the biological control agents: _____________________________________________________________ ______________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________


Illustration 2




1. a. Project Name: _______________________________________________________

b. Operator: ___________________________________________________________ c. Biological Control Release Proposal Number: ________________________________ d. Reference Number: ____________________________________________________ e. Biological Control Agent: ________________________________________________

2. Name of Employee(s) Releasing the Biological Control Agents: _____________________________________________________________ _____________

3. Date(s) of Release: (MONTH, DAY, YEAR)_____________________________________

4. Location of Release: T._____, R_____, Sec._______________, State ________________ County _________________, Longitude ________________, Latitude _______________ 5. Method used to Protect the Biological Control Agent: _______________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________ 6. a. Actual Area of Release: _________Acres

b. Total Project Area: __________Acres

7. Pest Species the Biocontrol Agent is Released on: _________________________________

8. Stage of Pest Development: __________________________________________________

9. General Soils Texture: /__/ Sandy /__/ Silty /__/ Clayey

10. Release Site: /__/ Native Vegetation /__/ Seeded Vegetation /__/ Other

11. Weather Conditions:

a. Wind velocity: ___________________ b. Temperature: ____________________ c. Precipitation: ________________________________________________________ _ d. Other weather conditions: _______________________________________________

12. Monitoring Record: ________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________

13. Site Collection on Record of Dates and Number of Biological Control Agents: _____________________________________________________________ _____________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________

This record must be completed except for monitoring within 24 hours after release of the biological control agent. Maintain these records for a period of 10 years.

Appendix 1


1. Locate and plot on Mylar, County map, USGS quad, etc., at 1:24000 minimum, the aerial extent of noxious weeds. This information will be used to overly onto a standard order 2 SCS Soil Survey. We will then be able to:

2. Characterize by:

A. Noxious weed species (phenotype if known)

B. Soil mapping unit(s) and page # of _____________County Soil Survey C. Stream order & name (e.g. 2nd, Spring Crk. to Judith River to Missouri river)  

3. Refine Further By:

A. Soil Series, use SCS-232 for major soil(s) at release site B. Aspect (use compass heading) and elevation C. Slope (major breaks(s) will be at maybe 15 or 25%) D. Ecological site(s) E. Precipitation (yearly and by growing season months) F. Growing degree days

1. 32 F 2. 40 F 3. 55 F 4. Yearly Precipitation 5. Precipitation by months 6. Growing season 7. Avg. frost date

 A. Last frost date B. First frost date

G. Influence of Chinooks (Foehns) number and duration by months H. Landowner/Permittee

1. Awareness and cooperation (good, poor, etc.) 2. Level of proficiency (high, medium, low, etc.)

I. Grazing management style

1. Savory 2. Rest rotation 3. Deferred 4. Other 5. Type of livestock 6. Age of livestock

J. General size of area (300x1200)  

4. BLM Allotment Category

A. I B. M C. C

5. Proximity to a remote automated weather station (RAWS) or other source of weather information (i.e., 13 miles to NNE).

6. Requirements of the Bio-agent if known

A. Soil type (Sandy, Loamy, Clayey, Acidic, Calcaerous, etc.) B. Climate (Dry, Moist, Warm, Hot, Cool, etc.) C. Other

  7. Location:

A. Legal B. Latitude and Longitude

  8. Cultural Practices

A. Present (Heavy, consistent spring grazing) B. Past (e.g., farmed in 35-37, calving area, hayed, etc.) C. Chemical Treatments (type, rate, date(s)) D. Previous Bio-agent? (i.e. Hawkmoth in 87, goats in 83 to 89)


Appendix 2










  I. PURPOSE The purpose of this Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is to establish and maintain biological control agents for the control of undesired plants on public lands.   II. AUTHORITIES This MOU is made under to authority of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of October 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1701-1782), Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974 (7 U.S.C. 2801-2813), and Federal Plant Pest Act of 1957 (7 U.S.C. 150aa-150jj).   III. OBJECTIVES The primary purpose of this MOU is to foster cooperation between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in the establishment and maintenance of biological control agents for controlling undesired plants on public lands.   IV. STATEMENT OF AGREEMENT A. BLM and APHIS mutually agree to:

1. Cooperate in the transportation, establishment, and maintenance of biological control agents on public land administered by BLM. 2. Insure that insectary sites are isolated from all pesticide applications. 3. Insure that all introduced agents are parasite and disease-free. 4. Jointly select sites for the introduction of biological control agents.  

B. BLM agrees to:

1. Obtain the proper State and Federal permits for transportation of biological control agents. 2. Provide biological control insectary sites for use by APHIS. 3. Provide sites for the release of biological control agents on public lands administered by BLM.  

C. APHIS agrees to:

1. Promptly provide BLM the necessary Federal permits for the interstate transportation of biological control agents. 2. Provide and release approved biological control agents on public lands. 3. Provide a written description of the sites and the released agents. 4. Notify BLM within 1 week of the agent's release date. 5. Obtain BLM approval prior to disseminating or collecting biological control agents from public lands.


This MOU shall become effective upon the date of the last signature. The MOU shall be jointly reviewed annually. Modifications may be proposed by either Agency and becomes effective after approval by both Agencies. This MOU may be terminated by either Agency upon 90 days written notification.


<Signature undecipherable> - Acting APHIS Administrator, Jan. 25, 1990

Cy Jamison - BLM, 4/5/90